A student goes to school to earn knowledge and become successful in his studies. However, not all students became successful in fact a drastic number of students failed and become disinterested to continue studying. Thus, as they enter high school their motivation level should be measured in order to detect those students who are at-risk of dropping out so that their problems will be addressed immediately.
It is true that one’s person is motivated he is most likely to succeed with his endeavor. Measuring motivation is a gauge to the students’ willingness to study against academic excellence. According to Margolis (2009), to achieve excellence, students must be highly motivated to achieve. Unfortunately, many students with learning problems appear unmotivated and disinterested in learning. This can become the most difficult and vexing instructional problem that teachers and parents face. Indeed, there is an important and separated place of motivation in training process since motivation in education effects the level of the learning of individual and as well as they reflect to their behaviours what they have learned or not. For Coskun (2011), the motivation of students represents the active participation of the students in learning process. The curiosity and interest of the students manifest itself with the connection to the subject learned, focus on the process of learning lesson and the joy of learning (Ertan, 2008). Inevitably, students who have not been motivated enough does not attend class regularly, does not listen to the lesson carefully, does not want to do homework and is irrelevant to the issues (Pintrich, 1996).
Hence, is the purpose of this research is to investigate the achievement motivation among grade VII secondary school students and the relationship between the achievement motivation and “gender”, “parent education level” and “family income level”.
Statement of the Problem:
This research study expected to examine the achievement motivation level among Grade VII secondary school students.
Specifically, this research pursued to answer the following sub-problems:
1.) What is the profile of Luray II National High School students in terms of:
1.2. parent educational level; and
1.3. family income status?
Review of Literature and Related Studies
This undertaking is anchored on the concept of the importance of the achievement motivation, an important concept in education.
The definition of “motive” and “motivation” were made by many researchers. The common side of this definition is motivation’s being the driving force “activating behaviour” (Coskun, 2011). Some of the definitions of motive and motivation as presented by Selcuk (2001) is as follows: motive is the power gives strength and direction to the behaviour; this power causes to act for a purpose by affecting organism. Motive describe by Okulda, (1993) is the driving force activating the organism, giving energy, causing a sensory uplift (enthusiasm, desire) and directing behaviour to achieve some specific purposes in certain situations. Motivation is a desire to succeed a goal which is meaningful to individual (Cladella, et. al 2002). For Domyei (2001) motivation tries to explain the reason why people decide to do something, with which decision they go after their willingness, and how long they are willing.
High school students, in their adolescence stage, are exposed to some factors that may cause their learning to fluctuate. These include family problems, relationships with peers or with the opposite sex, addiction to computer-generated Role Playing Game and Internet, unlimited texting, etc. Because of these factors parents and teachers find problems in incrementing the motivation to learn of these students (Tan, 2007).
Motivation influences how and why people learn as well as how they perform (Pintrich & Schunk, 1996). Motivation was
found to be the best predictor of student achievement in the two studies that investigated factors influencing student achievement and effects of the factors on students’ achievement in learning (Oxford, Park-Oh, Ito, & Sumrall, 1993a; 1993b).
In connection, Brophy (1998) describes motivation to learn as the students’ tendency to find academic activities meaningful and worthwhile and to try to get the intended learning benefits from them. Additionally, Stipek (1996) has a description on motivated students. These students have positive attitudes toward school and describe school as satisfying; they persist on difficult tasks and cause few management problems; and finally, they process information in depth and excel in classroom learning experiences.
Within the affective components, motivation is important because students’ motivation plays an important role in their conceptual change processes (Lee 1989, Lee and Brophy 1996, Pintrich et al. 1993), critical thinking, learning strategies (Garcia and Pintrich 1992, Kuyper et al. 2000, Wolters 1999).
Goc (2010) has stated the factors affecting students’ achievement motivation as: effectiveness of the teacher, friends, the individual’s attitude toward school, students’ perceptions about their own abilities, past experiences (positive or negative), the importance given to the student’s success, parents approaches towards their children and school by taking into account the researches done.
Additionally, research on motivational theories and studies of students’ learning (Brophy 1998, Pintrich and Schunk 1996) reveals that self-efficacy; the individual’s goals toward tasks, task value and the learning environment dominate students’ learning motivation.
Erb found out that high school student’s lack of motivation in learning were cause by: students’ lack of responsibility, students’ low self-esteem, students’ family dysfunction. Other researchers (Barlia and Beeth, 1999, Hynd et al. 2000, Lee, 1989 and Brophy, 1996) identified factors influencing student’s achievement motivation included: students’ own interests toward the subjects and the grades they received in class; students’ interpretation students’ interpretations of the nature of the task; students’ success or failure to make progress in academics; and students’ general goal and affective orientations in class and achievement of scientific understanding. Besides students’ own reasons, other factors influencing students’ motivation were teachers’ expectation of students’ learning, types of teachers’ feedback, and curriculum and social goals (Tuan, et al. 2005).
The important issue in achievement motive is the progress according to the student’s performance targets. The achievements of the students about the course are usually determined by the scores in examinations and the passing notes in class. Achievement motivation indicates using all his time and energy to achieve the standard objectives set before (Baykara, 1999).
Significance of the study
This study will help the administrators know the kind of motivation students have in performing better in school. In that sense, the administrators can contribute helpful strategies for students’ academic growth.
This study will help educators design effective academic techniques that can develop the students’ achievement motivation. Since teachers facilitation skills contribute to the students’ motivation level.
This study will help the students in their academic growth in such a way that they would be aware of the factors that motivate them both extrinsically and intrinsically to participate actively in school activities.
The parents would gain insights on how to help their children be motivated in performing well in the academe and would be able to use properly reward system in an informational manner and not in controlling manner.
The present study on the achievement motivation level among Grade VII secondary school students is center of analysis of this study. The researcher used the the scale was developed by Ellez (2004) in order to determine the level of the students’ achievement motivation. The scale consists of 23 items, and measures of the students’ achievement motive in the size of strive, participation, willingness to work and maintaining the working. The scale has five Likert type and scores as “very appropriate (4)”, “appropriate (3)”, “not suitable (2)” and “not at all suitable (1) “.
56 Grade VII secondary school students studying in Luray II National High School (Day) during the school year 2012 – 2013 at first participated in the study. The sample formed through random sample selection. In this type of selection, the sample is selected at random from the official enrolled master list.
Treatment of Data
The data that were gathered by the researcher were properly tabulated, calculated and interpreted, using appropriate statistical treatment.
The researcher used the following statistical treatment to have an appropriate empirical basis and interpretation of data.
Simple Percentage Formula was utilized to compute the percentage of the profile of the respondents in terms of gender and age. The weighted mean formula was utilized to arrive at a definite data on the variables specified in the standardized instrument. Likert format was used to determine the scale of achievement motivation. Weights were provided for each scale
To test the significance between achievement motivation and gender as well as parents educational attainment and family income status, Coefficient of Contingency (Using Chi-Square) was used.
The formulas were as follows:
Simple Percentage Formula
P = f / n x 100
Where: P = Percentage
f = frequency
n = number of respondents
100 = constant variable in computing percentage
Weighted Mean Formula
Where: ∑ = summation
f = grade
w = weight/units
N = no. of respondents
4 Very appropriate
2 not suitalbe
1 Not at all suitable
The researcher utilized a hypothetical-mean range to interpret the results. The following are the hypothetical-mean range with its interpretation.
Range Scale Interpretation
3.26 – 4.00 Very appropriate Very high achievement motivation (VHAM)
2.51 – 3.25 Appropriate High achievement motivation (HAM)
1.76 – 2.50 Not Suitable Low achievement motivation (LAM)
1.0 – 1.75 Not at all Suitable Very Low achievement motivation (VLAM)
Table 1: The personal information of students participating the study
|Frequency (f)||Percentage (%)|
|Mother’s Educational Attainment||Elementary Education||15||26.79|
|Father’s Educational Attainment||Elementary Education||18||32.14|
|Family Income Status||Self-employed||17||30.36|
This table shows the personal information of Grade VII students participated in the study. Majority of the respondents are female with 57.14% whereas the males have 42.86%. In regards to their parents education attainment, most of the participants have mother and father who finished secondary education with 58.93% and 57.14% respectively. 62.50% of the respondents have parents who are worker.
Table 2: The achievement motivation level of Grade VII students
|The scale of the expressions||weighted mean||interpretation|
|1||I try stubbornly when ı failed my lessons.||2.63||HAM|
|2||I try to do the best whatever I do.||2.70||HAM|
|3||Being successful at easy tasks that anyone can do does not give me pleasure.||2.54||HAM|
|4||I would like to pass all my lessons.||3.16||HAM|
|5||I enjoy answering difficult questions in every exam.||2.45||LAM|
|6||I try to do my best when I have work.||2.84||HAM|
|7||To take low marks in all my lessons makes me sad.||2.95||HAM|
|8||I would like to get the highest mark in all my lessons.||3.07||HAM|
|9||Not to take high marks makes me sad.||1.95||LAM|
|10||I study hard to all my lessons.||2.88||HAM|
|11||I study all my lessons only test period.||2.18||LAM|
|12||I enjoy studying all my lessons.||2.86||HAM|
|13||I get bored when I start studying my lessons.||1.91||LAM|
|14||I want easy issues to be taught instead of difficult issues in all my lessons.||3.20||HAM|
|15||I like being successful at school.||3.07||HAM|
|16||I get disturbed when I cannot finish my homework.||2.46||LAM|
|17||I don’t try to learn more than taught.||2.73||HAM|
|18||I start studying after my lesson.||2.43||LAM|
|19||I feel better when I am successful at school.||2.73||HAM|
|20||I review my lessons even I don’t have exam.||2.77||HAM|
|21||I study more than homework even my teachers don’t want me to do.||2.77||HAM|
|22||I try to understand my lessons.||2.77||HAM|
|23||I try to flatter to my teachers.||2.48||LAM|
The table 2 presents the achievement motivation level of Grade VII students. It reveals that the respondents have high achievement motivation in the following variable: they try stubbornly when they failed their lesson (2.63); they try to do the best whatever they do (2.70); being successful at easy tasks that anyone can do does give them pleasure (2.54); they would like to pass all their lessons (3.16); they try to do their best when they have work (2.84); to take low marks in all their lessons makes them sad (2.95); they would like to get the highest mark in all their lessons (3.07); they study hard to all their lessons (2.88); they enjoy studying their lessons (2.86); they want difficult issues to be taught instead of easy lessons (3.20); they like being successful at school (3.07); they try to learn more than taught (2.73); they feel better when they are successful at school (2.73); they review their lessons even they don’t have exam (2.77); they study more than homework even their teacher’s don’t want them to do (2.77); they try to understand their lessons (2.77). The Grade VII students seemed motivated to study their lesson and they like challenging task/activity, they are curious and willing to learn for its own sake, and they want to try things on their own to be successful in school.
On the contrary, the participants have low achievement motivation in the following variables: they enjoy answering difficult questions in every exam (2.45); not to take high marks makes them sad (1.95); they study all their lessons only test period (2.18); they get bored when they start studying their lessons (1.91); they get disturbed when they cannot finish their homework (2.46); they start studying after their lessons (2.43); they try to flatter their teachers (2.48). The participants still on their transition period and have a difficult time coping their current situations in the secondary level.
Summary and Conclusions
In this study, the respondents are from Grade VII students officially enrolled for this school year 2012-2013. There were 56 Grade VII students participated the conduct of this study in which majority are females with 57.14%. The highest educational attainment of most parents of the respondents is secondary graduate with 58.93% (mother) and 57.14% (father). 62.50% of these parents were workers.
In general, in this research the achievement motivation of students is considered ‘high’ level but an important part of them want to learn easy issues in their lessons, don’t want to learn more than they taught, want lessons pass empty and study their lessons only test period. Studies have shown that the students motivated to lesson at the beginning of the class, their interest lasts for long until the end of the lesson, and also shows that they learn better. At this point, the motivation of students certainly should not be ignored. Among the causes of negative attitudes of the students about their lessons, in a certain part of the students, it is more strong possibility that the reason is not cause from the lesson issue or its content; it is cause from the lack of support from parents and the lack of school facilities.
The following suggestions are made considering the results above:
1.) Using different strategies in motivating students in their academics, it should be useful for teachers to apply the motivation strategies in their lessons.
2.) Parents should encourage more their children and should ask feedback to teachers in regards to their students’ academic performance.
3.) Teachers and parents should work collaboratively in helping the students to be academically motivated.
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