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Grade II Students Achievement Motivation Level

Rationale:

A student goes to school to earn knowledge and become successful in his studies. However, not all students became successful in fact a drastic number of students failed and become disinterested to continue studying. Thus, as they enter high school their motivation level should be measured in order to detect those students who are at-risk of dropping out so that their problems will be addressed immediately.

It is true that one’s person is motivated he is most likely to succeed with his endeavor. Measuring motivation is a gauge to the students’ willingness to study against academic excellence. According to Margolis (2009), to achieve excellence, students must be highly motivated to achieve. Unfortunately, many students with learning problems appear unmotivated and disinterested in learning. This can become the most difficult and vexing instructional problem that teachers and parents face.  Indeed, there is an important and separated place of motivation in training process since motivation in education effects the level of the learning of individual and as well as they reflect to their behaviours what they have learned or not. For Coskun (2011), the motivation of students represents the active participation of the students in learning process. The curiosity and interest of the students manifest itself with the connection to the subject learned, focus on the process of learning lesson and the joy of learning (Ertan, 2008). Inevitably, students who have not been motivated enough does not attend class regularly, does not listen to the lesson carefully, does not want to do homework and is irrelevant to the issues (Pintrich, 1996).

Hence, is the purpose of this research is to investigate the achievement motivation among grade VII secondary school students and the relationship between the achievement motivation and “gender”, “parent education level” and “family income level”.

THE PROBLEM

Statement of the Problem:

This research study expected to examine the achievement motivation level among Grade VII secondary school students.

Specifically, this research pursued to answer the following sub-problems:

1.) What is the profile of Luray II National High School students in terms of:

1.1. gender;

1.2. parent educational level; and

1.3. family income status?

Review of Literature and Related Studies

           This undertaking is anchored on the concept of the importance of the achievement motivation, an important concept in education.

The definition of “motive” and “motivation” were made by many researchers. The common side of this definition is motivation’s being the driving force “activating behaviour” (Coskun, 2011). Some of the definitions of motive and motivation as presented by Selcuk (2001) is as follows: motive is the power gives strength and direction to the behaviour; this power causes to act for a purpose by affecting organism. Motive describe by Okulda, (1993) is the driving force activating the organism, giving energy, causing a sensory uplift (enthusiasm,  desire)  and  directing  behaviour  to  achieve  some  specific  purposes  in  certain situations.   Motivation is a desire to succeed a goal which is meaningful to individual  (Cladella, et. al 2002). For Domyei (2001) motivation tries to explain the reason why people decide to do something, with which decision they go after their willingness, and how long they are willing.

High school students, in their adolescence stage, are exposed to some factors that may cause their learning to fluctuate. These include family problems, relationships with peers or with the opposite sex, addiction to computer-generated Role Playing Game and Internet, unlimited texting, etc. Because of these factors parents and teachers find problems in incrementing the motivation to learn of these students (Tan, 2007).

Motivation influences how and why people learn as well as how they perform (Pintrich & Schunk, 1996). Motivation was

found to be the best predictor of student achievement   in   the   two   studies   that investigated   factors   influencing   student achievement and effects of the factors on students’   achievement   in   learning   (Oxford, Park-Oh, Ito, & Sumrall, 1993a; 1993b).

In connection, Brophy (1998) describes motivation to learn as the students’ tendency to find academic activities meaningful and worthwhile and to try to get the intended learning benefits from them. Additionally, Stipek (1996) has a description on motivated students. These students have positive attitudes toward school and describe school as satisfying; they persist on difficult tasks and cause few management problems; and finally, they process information in depth and excel in classroom learning experiences.

Within the affective components, motivation is important because students’ motivation plays an important role in their conceptual change processes (Lee 1989, Lee and Brophy 1996, Pintrich et al. 1993), critical thinking, learning strategies (Garcia and Pintrich 1992, Kuyper et al. 2000, Wolters 1999).

Goc (2010) has stated the factors affecting students’ achievement motivation as: effectiveness of the teacher, friends, the individual’s attitude toward school, students’ perceptions about their own abilities, past experiences (positive or negative), the importance given to the student’s success, parents approaches towards their children and school by taking into account the researches done.

Additionally, research on motivational theories and studies of students’ learning (Brophy 1998, Pintrich and Schunk 1996) reveals that self-efficacy; the individual’s goals toward tasks, task value and the learning environment dominate students’ learning motivation.

Erb found out that high school student’s lack of motivation in learning were cause by: students’ lack of responsibility, students’ low self-esteem, students’ family dysfunction. Other researchers (Barlia and Beeth, 1999, Hynd et al. 2000, Lee, 1989 and Brophy, 1996) identified factors influencing student’s achievement motivation included: students’ own interests toward the subjects and the grades they received in class; students’ interpretation students’ interpretations of the nature of the task; students’ success or failure to make progress in academics; and students’ general goal and affective orientations in class and achievement of scientific understanding. Besides students’ own reasons, other factors influencing students’ motivation were teachers’ expectation of students’ learning, types of teachers’ feedback, and curriculum and social goals (Tuan, et al. 2005).

The important issue in achievement motive is the progress according to the student’s performance targets. The achievements of the students about the course are usually determined by the scores in examinations and the passing notes in class. Achievement motivation indicates using all his time and energy to achieve the standard objectives set before (Baykara, 1999).

Significance of the study

Administrators

This study will help the administrators know the kind of motivation students have in performing better in school. In that sense, the administrators can contribute helpful strategies for students’ academic growth.

Educators

This study will help educators design effective academic techniques that can develop the students’ achievement motivation. Since teachers facilitation skills contribute to the students’ motivation level.

 Students

 This study will help the students in their academic growth in such a way that they would be aware of the factors that motivate them both extrinsically and intrinsically to participate actively in school activities.

Parents

           The parents would gain insights on how to help their children be motivated in performing well in the academe and would be able to use properly reward system in an informational manner and not in controlling manner.

Research Methodology

The present study on the achievement motivation level among Grade VII secondary school students is center of analysis of this study. The researcher used the the  scale  was developed by Ellez  (2004)  in  order  to  determine  the  level of  the students’  achievement motivation. The scale consists of 23 items, and measures of the students’ achievement motive in the size of strive, participation, willingness to work and maintaining the working. The scale has five Likert type and scores as “very appropriate (4)”, “appropriate (3)”, “not suitable (2)” and “not at all suitable (1) “.

Study Group

56 Grade VII secondary school students studying in Luray II National High School (Day) during the school year 2012 – 2013 at first participated in the study. The sample formed through random sample selection. In this type of selection, the sample is selected at random from the official enrolled master list.

Treatment of Data

The data that were gathered by the researcher were properly tabulated, calculated and interpreted, using appropriate statistical treatment.

The researcher used the following statistical treatment to have an appropriate empirical basis and interpretation of data.

Simple Percentage Formula was utilized to compute the percentage of the profile of the respondents in terms of gender and age. The weighted mean formula was utilized to arrive at a definite data on the variables specified in the standardized instrument.  Likert format was used to determine the scale of achievement motivation. Weights were provided for each scale

To test the significance between achievement motivation and gender as well as parents educational attainment and family income status, Coefficient of Contingency (Using Chi-Square) was used.

The formulas were as follows:

Simple Percentage Formula

P = f / n x 100

Where:         P = Percentage

f = frequency

n = number of respondents

100 = constant variable in computing percentage

Weighted Mean Formula

Xw =

Where:          ∑ = summation

                        f = grade

                       w = weight/units

                      N = no. of respondents

Likert Format

Weights                                                       Scale

4                                                  Very appropriate

3                                                  appropriate

2                                                  not suitalbe

1                                                 Not at all suitable

The researcher utilized a hypothetical-mean range to interpret the results. The following are the hypothetical-mean range with its interpretation.

Range                 Scale                                                 Interpretation

3.26 – 4.00       Very appropriate         Very high achievement motivation (VHAM)

2.51 – 3.25       Appropriate                 High achievement motivation (HAM)

1.76 – 2.50       Not Suitable                 Low achievement motivation (LAM)

1.0 – 1.75       Not at all Suitable           Very Low achievement motivation (VLAM)

Data Analysis

 Table 1: The personal information of students participating the study

Frequency (f) Percentage (%)
Gender Male 24 42.86
Female 32 57.14
Total 56 100
Mother’s Educational Attainment Elementary Education 15 26.79
Secondary Education 33 58.93
Tertiary Education 8 10.71
Total 56 100
Father’s Educational Attainment Elementary Education 18 32.14
Secondary Education 32 57.14
Tertiary Education 6 10.71
Total 56 100
Family Income Status Self-employed 17 30.36
Worker 35 62.50
Unemployed 4 7.14
Total 56 100

 

This table shows the personal information of Grade VII students participated in the study. Majority of the respondents are female with 57.14% whereas the males have 42.86%. In regards to their parents education attainment, most of the participants have mother and father who finished secondary education with 58.93% and 57.14% respectively. 62.50% of the respondents have parents who are worker.

Table 2: The achievement motivation level of Grade VII students

 

The scale of the expressions weighted mean interpretation
1 I try stubbornly when ı failed my lessons. 2.63 HAM
2 I try to do the best whatever I do. 2.70 HAM
3 Being successful at easy tasks that anyone can do does not give me pleasure. 2.54 HAM
4 I would like to pass all my lessons. 3.16 HAM
5 I enjoy answering difficult questions in every exam. 2.45 LAM
6 I try to do my best when I have work. 2.84 HAM
7 To take low marks in all my lessons makes me sad. 2.95 HAM
8 I would like to get the highest mark in all my lessons. 3.07 HAM
9 Not to take high marks makes me sad. 1.95 LAM
10 I study hard to all my lessons. 2.88 HAM
11 I study all my lessons only test period. 2.18 LAM
12 I enjoy studying all my lessons. 2.86 HAM
13 I get bored when I start studying my lessons. 1.91 LAM
14 I want easy issues to be taught instead of difficult issues in all my lessons. 3.20 HAM
15 I like being successful at school. 3.07 HAM
16 I get disturbed when I cannot finish my homework. 2.46 LAM
17 I don’t try to learn more than taught. 2.73 HAM
18 I start studying after my lesson. 2.43 LAM
19 I feel better when I am successful at school. 2.73 HAM
20 I review my lessons even I don’t have exam. 2.77 HAM
21 I study more than homework even my teachers don’t want me to do. 2.77 HAM
22 I try to understand my lessons. 2.77 HAM
23 I try to flatter to my teachers. 2.48 LAM
AVERAGE 2.67 HAM

 

The table 2 presents the achievement motivation level of Grade VII students. It reveals that the respondents have high achievement motivation in the following variable: they try stubbornly when they failed their lesson (2.63); they try to do the best whatever they do (2.70); being successful at easy tasks that anyone can do does give them pleasure (2.54); they would like to pass all their lessons (3.16); they try to do their best when they have work (2.84); to take low marks in all their lessons makes them sad (2.95); they would like to get the highest mark in all their lessons (3.07); they study hard to all their lessons (2.88); they enjoy studying their lessons (2.86); they want difficult issues to be taught instead of easy lessons (3.20); they like being successful at school (3.07); they try to learn more than taught (2.73); they feel better when they are successful at school (2.73); they review their lessons even they don’t have exam (2.77); they study more than homework even their teacher’s don’t want them to do (2.77); they try to understand their lessons (2.77). The Grade VII students seemed motivated to study their lesson and they like challenging task/activity, they are curious and willing to learn for its own sake, and they want to try things on their own to be successful in school.

On the contrary, the participants have low achievement motivation in the following variables: they enjoy answering difficult questions in every exam (2.45); not to take high marks makes them sad (1.95); they study all their lessons only test period (2.18); they get bored when they start studying their lessons (1.91); they get disturbed when they cannot finish their homework (2.46); they start studying after their lessons (2.43); they try to flatter their teachers (2.48). The participants still on their transition period and have a difficult time coping their current situations in the secondary level.

Summary and Conclusions

 In this study, the respondents are from Grade VII students officially enrolled for this school year 2012-2013. There were 56 Grade VII students participated the conduct of this study in which majority are females with 57.14%. The highest educational attainment of most parents of the respondents is secondary graduate with 58.93% (mother) and 57.14% (father). 62.50% of these parents were workers.

In general, in this research the achievement motivation of students is considered ‘high’ level but an important part of them want to learn easy issues in their lessons, don’t want to learn more than they taught, want lessons pass empty and study their lessons only test period. Studies have shown that the students motivated to lesson at the beginning of the class, their interest lasts for long until the end of the lesson, and also shows that they learn better. At this point, the motivation of students certainly should not be ignored. Among the causes of negative attitudes of the students about their lessons, in a certain part of the students, it is more strong possibility that the reason is not cause from the lesson issue or its content; it is cause from the lack of support from parents and the lack of school facilities.

The following suggestions are made considering the results above:

1.) Using different strategies in motivating students in their academics, it should be useful for teachers to apply the motivation strategies in their lessons.

2.) Parents should encourage more their children and should ask feedback to teachers in regards to their students’ academic performance.

3.) Teachers and parents should work collaboratively in helping the students to be academically motivated.

References

Brophy, J. (1998). Motivationg studenets to learn, Madison WI: McGraw Hill.

Deci, E, & Ryan, R (1991). A motivational approach to self: Integration in personality. In R. Dienstbier  (Ed.) Nebraska Symposium on Motivation,Volume 38, Perspectives on Motivation (pp. 237-288). Lincoln, NE:University of Nebraska Press.

K. Cladella, C. Herlin, A. Hoefler, ERIC Information Center Resources [ED473816], 2002.

J. Brophy, Motivating students to learn, Usa: Mcgrow Companies Nc,1998.

Pintrich, P.R.                (1995).    Understanding self-regulated learning. .   In R. J. Menges & M. D. Svinicki  (Eds.) Understanding self-regulated  learning,  New  directions  forteaching and learning  (No.  63, pp.  3-12). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Pintrich, P. R. & Schunk, D. H. (1996). Motivation in education: Theory, research, and  application.    Englewood  Cliffs,  NJ: Prentice-Hall Inc.

Z. Dörnyei, Teaching and researching motivation, Harlow: Pearson Education Limited,  2001.

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Humanities (Final Examination Questionnaire)

I. MULTIPLE CHOICE

Instruction: Read the questions carefully and choose the correct answer. Write the letter of your answer in your examination booklet. Good luck.

  1. What are the materials that the artist uses in creating a work of art?

a) visual and auditory                                    b) subject and technique

c) emotion and feelings                                  d) medium and elements

  1. Is the physical means through which we can come into contact with a work of art?

a) medium                   b) draft                        c) paint                                    d) technique

  1. Is the art of combining and regulating sounds of varying pitch to produce compositions expressive of various ideas and emotions that are pleasing.

a) melody                    b) music                        c) rhythm                      d) tempo

  1. Is often classed as the creation and recording of music via a medium by which others can interpret it (i.e., paper or sound).

a) improvisation           b) interpretation          c) composition              d) sound recording

  1. Is the art, science, and practice of creating durable images.

a) printing                    b) photography           c) developing              d) image editing

  1. Is a collaborative form of fine art that uses live performers to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place.

a) drama                     b) stagecraft                c) drama                      d) theatre

  1. Is the overall organizational visual structure of the formal elements in a work of art.

a) art creation              b) mediums of visual art          c) design          d) painting

  1. This kind of design shows strength and durability of materials.

a) structural design      b) decorative design   c) naturalistic design    d) conventional design

  1. Is one which uses suggestions of natural objects

a) abstract design        b) decorative design   c) naturalistic design    d) conventional design

  1. Is the surface enrichment of a structural design.

a) abstract design        b) decorative design   c) naturalistic design    d) conventional design

  1. Is said to be the most essential of all the principles of design.

a) emphasis                 b) rhythm                     c) proportion                d) harmony

  1. Is a feeling of equality in weight, attention, or attraction of the various elements of design.

a) proportion               b) harmony                  c) balance                    d) law of rest

  1. Is produced with the aid of mechanical design.

a) conventional design   b) structural design    c) geometric design     d) naturalistic design

  1. It deals with the proper or significant relation between two things or parts.

a) law of order            b) proportion               c) relativity                  d) law of relationships

  1. Is one which is a result of the impression of natural form.

a) simple design          b) moderate design     c) natural design          d) conventional design

  1. Is achieved by the arrangement of the same objects of the same sizes so that they have equal distances from the center.

a) formal balance       b) informal balance     c) vertical balance       d) horizontal balance

  1. In art, it means an easy, connected path along which the eye may travel in any arrangement of lines, forms or colors.

a) emphasis                 b) movement flow        c) occult balance          d) rhythm

  1. Is the quality of stability in a composition in which the objects on one side differ from those on the other side and yet visually attract our attention with equal force.

a) formal balance       b) informal balance     c) stability balance      d) security balance

  1. Which of the following is a symbol of a people’s dangerous grace?

a) hard day’s work      b) magellan’s cross      c) genus tamaraw        d) vast field

  1. What kind of balance can we observe in the American’s cemetery in Makati, Rizal, where thousands of American war dead lie in tranquil and well-kept surroundings therein.

a) symmetrical balance of crosses                   b) asymmetrical balance of crosses

c) non-symmetric balance of crosses                 d) horizontal balance of crosses

II. ENUMERATION

21-27 What are the elements of the visual art?

28-30 What are the properties of color?

31-35 What are the five (5) principles of design?

III. TRUE OR FALSE

Write true if the statement is correct and false if the statement is otherwise.

__________36. The primary colors are green, violet and orange.

__________37. Violet is a mixture of red and blue. It suggests shadows, mourning, penance,

royalty and power.

__________ 38. Blue is the color of still water and vegetation. It is a symbol of growth, freshness

and hope.

__________ 39. The intermediate colors can be produced by mixing in equal amounts the

secondary and tertiary colors.

__________ 40. Red is a combination of orange and yellow and symbolizes love.

__________ 41. Yellow-green is the kind of color which is hurting to the eyes and which makes

one appear darker.

__________ 42. Color harmony is the correct combination and arrangement of colors so that they

will appear pleasing to the eyes.

__________43. The success of the use of harmony colors depends upon the technique of the

painter even without his knowledge, skill and interest.

__________ 44. Colors can play tricks because of variations in light sources and reflected

__________ 45. Light does not determine color.

Instruction: Listed in the box are the elements of visual arts and properties of color. Choose the correct answer from the box for each description given in the next succeeding items. Write only the letter of your answer in your examination booklet.

a) line                    c) value (light and dark)                 e) color                 g) chiaroscurob) form                 d) texture                                           f) intensity          h) hue

 

_______46.  This is the term to denote the brightness and dullness of a color.

_______47.  As an element, it is the simplest, most ancient, and most universal means for creating

visual art.

_______ 48. Is the surface treatment of an artistic work in order to give variety and beauty to

any work of art.

_______ 49. Is the relative degree of lightness and darkness in a graphic work of art or painting.

_______ 50. Is the quality of an object or substance with respect to light reflected by it, and

usually determine visually by measurement of hue, saturation and brightness of the

reflected light.

-end-

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Inspirational Quote

“Your living is determined not so much by what life brings to you… as by the attitude you bring to life.” – John Homer Mills

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Inspirational Quote

“Nothing can stop the man with the right mental attitude from achieving his goals: nothing on earth can help the man with the wrong mental attitude.”   -Thomas Jefferson

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Strategic Marketing Management (Final Examination)

Name: _______________________________________________                                           Date: ___________________________

Instruction: The examination consists only of one part-essay. This will test how far is your learning in strategic marketing management. You may answer either of the two questions. You may begin writing your answer at the back of this questionnaire. You may use a separate sheet if necessary. The perfect score is 100 %. Good luck.


Marketing is commonly misunderstood as an ostentatious term for advertising and promotion; in reality it is far more than that. The term ‘marketing’ actually covers everything from company culture and positioning, through market research, new business/product development, advertising and promotion, PR (public/press relations), and arguably all of the sales and
customer service functions as well. Marketing also is defined as the following:

  • It is systematic attempt to fulfill human desires by producing goods and services that people will buy.

  • It is where the cutting edge of human nature meets the versatility of technology.

  • Marketing-oriented companies help us discover desires we never knew we had, and ways of fulfilling them we never imagined could be invented.

Almost every marketing textbook has a different definition of the term “marketing.”  But in sum, we can see that a simple definition of marketing would be, The right product, in the right place, at the right time, at the right price.”

 Strategic management is an iterative, ongoing process designed to position a firm for competitive advantage in its ever-changing environment. To manage an organization strategically, a manager must clearly understand and appreciate the desires of key organizational stakeholders, the industry environment, and the firm’s position relative to its stakeholders and industry. This knowledge allows a manager to set goals and direct the organization’s resources in a way that corrects weaknesses, overcomes threats, takes advantages of strengths and opportunities, and, ultimately, satisfies stakeholders.

Internal stakeholders include managers, employees, and the owners and their representatives (e.g., board of directors), all having a stake in the outcomes of the organization. External stakeholders include customers, suppliers, competitors, government agencies and administrators, and a variety of other external groups that have a stake in the organization.

The scope of strategic marketing management involve but not limited to:

  1. Marketing strategy and planning

  2. Business strategy and competitive advantage

  3. Marketing audit and SWOT analysis

  4. Marketing cost and financial analysis

  5. Market and environmental analysis

  6. Competitor analysis

  7. Customer analysis

  8. Learning in marketing organization

  9. Segmenting markets

  10. Targeting and positioning strategies

  11. Relationship strategies

  12. Generic strategies

  13. Planning for new products

  14. Product branding and customer service strategies

  15. Pricing strategy

  16. Advertising and sales promotion strategies

  17. Public relations and direct marketing strategies

  18. Sales force strategies

  19. Distribution strategy

  20. Strategic issues in marketing

  21. Designing an effective marketing organization

  22. Marketing strategy, implementation and control


  1. Suppose an amount is granted to you equivalent to two million dollars ($ 2, 000, 000.00) by a philanthropist as your financial capital to start a business without having condition, only that the latter is requiring you to present to him your strategic marketing plan or matrix in order to ensure the success of the business, how would you do it being now the founder and CEO of your own company? or

  2. Suppose the management of the company that you want to be employed of here in Toledo City, Cebu City or Manila hired you, and subsequently you were tasked to made a strategic management marketing plan/matrix to help the firm gain competitive advantage, how would you present it? Cite that company that you eagerly want to be employed of.

Note: Use the above information as guide. You can use your own strategic marketing plan or matrix. Be sure to use at least three (3) strategic marketing management strategies.

-end-

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Inspirational Quote

“A successful man is one who can lay a firm foundation with bricks that others throw at him.” – David Brinkley

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