1.) Objective Model
In a curriculum development there are models that serve as guide to help the teachers to plan and create an excellent curriculum to have a more precise tool for teaching. One of these is the objective model which is developed by Tyler. This model is also called the mean-end model because what needs to be achieved must be realized with planning of methods and strategies to be implemented. Tyler stressed that the school should identify the purpose of its existence, how can it be addressed, how can this be materialized and how can this be known that it succeeded. With these questions, there is now the advent of logical sequences with appropriate learning experience to be observed and careful evaluation. So, this model follows a definite process – 4 steps which require a definite outcome. The first is to identify a specific objective that needs to be attained which is actually the most critical or hardest part since steps 2 to 4 will only follow suit. In other words, after identifying what objectives to be achieved selecting learning experience or what content to be introduced will be promptly made as well as organizing this learning experience or analyzing what will be the methods used. Then, evaluation will follow if these things had been successfully accomplished. In general, the objective model is a fixed structure that must begin in creating objectives and after which, are the means on how to attain this end.
There is a vivid direction on the learning process and a concrete guide on what are the things that needs to be done because the objectives are presented very clearly.
- There is a systematized flow of curriculum for proper implementation.
- There is rationality of the sequence of the curriculum elements.
Basically the curriculum development is evolving so there is no such thing as fixed as what this model is advocating.
- The core of its curriculum objective is insufficiently discussed.
- It cannot measure the learning outcomes.
- It limits the capabilities of students to learn more in different ways and aspects.
- No coherence between the end and means.
- Students’ performance cannot be predicted without knowing first the students consequently there’s no assurance of how effective it is.
- Results vary and are difficult to measure so it is not good to prejudge the learning abilities of the students.
- Not necessarily that education objective will be identified first because it may not be relevant to all other subject matter.
As I have observe in this model it is like a subject – centered approach in which there is no consideration on the part of the learner. This model underscored primarily on making a precise objective that the learner should carry out without realizing their capacity and readiness of learning. It seems to be very ideal that the objectives made must be followed. It is like imposing a policy and students have no right to complain and are only to follow it otherwise unfavorable consequences might happen. For me, this is not quite beneficial to the learners because their learning is already determined well in fact it could not be.
2.) Interaction Model
Another model that is useful to the curriculum developer, authored by Taba and Cohen, is the interaction model. It is called as such since the curriculum development is perceived as a dynamic process contrary to the objective model. According to this model, the four curriculum element is interrelated and has no fixed structure. Interrelated in the sense that they work together – if there is a change in one element every element is affected and should be changed as well and each one of them is working for one other, it exhibit cohesion and unity. And any of the four elements will be present first, there is no specific order or arrangement for this model, it will only rely during the progress of the actual implementation and any of it will be next.
There is a freedom of choice on what is the sequence to do that is suited for the subject matter and at the same time in regards to the flow of activities.
- The structure is much dependent on what will happen during the actual application and proves to be efficient.
- If something went wrong with the prepared plan it could be changed to a more effective one, it is very flexible that you could adjust it any time.
- It could easily respond to the needs and concerns of the learner and it considers the various aspects that affect learning.
There is ambiguity in terms of identifying the learning objectives to be attained.
- It is not properly structured that it ca go for any direction that might lead to a half-baked product.
It is interesting to note that there is an approach whereby changes happen every time something turns out not well during implementation and this is interaction model. You don’t need to follow a certain flow or framework which you think might not work. You have the liberty to sequence the four curriculum element i.e. objectives, content, methods and evaluation; while considering the nature of the learner and the other factors that can contribute to learning. Even if it has no definite structure as guide but you could eventually analyze things and arrange it appropriately according to the ability of the learner and the subject matter. It helps you to be creative and innovative to really meet the needs of the students. I can now say that this model is a student-centered approach.
3.) Process Model
The process model is a more complicated thing than the above mentioned models. It comprises with all the factors essential to optimized learning. It elaborates the needed components which must be given attention and consideration. This model is very structured and more detailed than the objective model, wherein you are guided with a step by step process to ultimately reach its main purpose relative to the curriculum development. The first thing to do is to begin with the guiding principles such as the different perspectives of the child behavior, teaching, learning and the structure of knowledge to prepare on what lesson plans should be made that is the content and the process selection. If the lesson plan is already crafty done then learning situation comes next, deliberating the physical situation, teacher behavior, and pupil behavior and resource usage. After those things, it will be evaluated if the aftermath is worth achieving.
It is a very specific and detailed structure that guides you to create an effective curriculum.
- It is well systematized and directs to a precise learning outcomes.
- Has a coherent arrangement of element which will provide efficient and productive output.
It has no clear objectives and might lead to confusion.
- It prevents the developer to be creative and innovative because everything is provided.
- It needs longer preparation because there are a lot of factors or elements to be considered.
I find process model a very helpful tool in creating a curriculum because everything is specified; all you need to do is determine those factors and design a curriculum easily and effectively. It can make you to become a good curriculum developer if you only know how to apply the knowledge you acquired, identify content in regards to the subject matter and are keen to observe the situation; then consolidate those things and can already generate a very good curriculum but are still subject for an extensive evaluation to merit the achievement of it. Hence, this model is definitely valuable and credible you are seeing things in a wide perspective and examining things thoroughly.
My own model is called – “Relation – Process Model”
This model accentuates the mutual relationship of the different elements – the Subject Matter, Content, Thrust, Environment, Instrument and the Evaluation. These six components relate to each other and formed a logical process to construct a well – developed curriculum. The Subject matter should be identified first in order to formulate a suitable content and could identify a specific thrust to give direction to a right course of study. Subsequently, environment should be conscientiously examined and accounted so that appropriate instrument will be finely structured prior to implementation or application. And evaluation is to gauge if it is operationally effective and productive.