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How Self-Efficacy Affects Behavior?

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Self-efficacy is the extent or strength of one’s belief in one’s own ability to complete tasks and reach goals. This can be seen as the ability to persist and a person’s ability to succeed with a task.

As an example, self-efficacy directly relates to how long someone will stick to a workout regimen or a diet. High and low self-efficacy determine whether or not someone will choose to take on a challenging task or “write it off” as impossible.

Self-efficacy affects every area of human endeavor. By determining the beliefs a person holds regarding his or her power to affect situations, it strongly influences both the power a person actually has to face challenges competently and the choices a person is most likely to make. These effects are particularly apparent, and compelling, with regard to behaviors affecting health.

According to some social cognitive theorists, people’s feelings of self-efficacy affect several aspects of behavior, including their choice of activities, their goals, their effort and persistence, and ultimately their learning and achievement.

To some theorists, people tend to choose tasks and activities at which they believe they can succeed. They also tend to avoid or unaccept those tasks and activities at which they think they will fail in the end. For instance, students who believe they can succeed at mathematics are more likely to take Engineering courses in college than students who believe they are incompetent mathematically. The latter will opt to take other courses whom they feel they are competent enough.

People also set higher goals for themselves when they have high self-efficacy in a particular domain. For instance, adolescent’s choices of careers and occupational levels will reflect on the subject areas in which they have higher self-efficacy rather than those who have low self-efficacy.

Moreover, people of high sense of self-efficacy are more likely to exert effort in attempting to accomplish a task. They are also more likely to persist when they encounter obstacles, challenges or adversities. For students having low self-efficacy about a task, they put less effort into it and eventually give it up more quickly especially in the midst of difficulty.

For students with high self-efficacy, they academically tend to learn and achieve more than students with low self-efficacy, even when their actual ability levels are the same. When several students have equal ability, those students who believe they can do a task are more likely to accomplish it successfully compare those who do not believe they are capable of making it a success.

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What Are The Sources of Knowledge?

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The following are significantly considered as the sources of knowledge of human being.

Customs and Traditions. Custom is a way of life. It is a pattern of habitual activity in one family, geographical area or place, or groups of nationality, usually transmitted from generation to another. It is a habitual practice and usual way of acting in a given circumstance of a certain environment. As a practice, it is usually collective and so long continue to establish a force of law.

On the other hand, tradition is the handling down of statements, beliefs, legends and customs from generation to generation especially by word of mouth or by practice.

It is surprising to note nowadays that even at this era of great scientific and technological advancement, there are still a lot of people throughout the world who rely on customs and traditions for their personal beliefs or knowledge on certain phenomenon.

However, customs and traditions have certain characteristics in which man should not totally rely on without first subjecting them to careful, critical and exhaustive examination. Yet, they have the binding force to be habitual and imitative. This pattern of behavior is virtually adopted to be a part of an individual’s way of life.

Sense Perception. This is the inherent capacity of man to perceive using any of his faculties such as sight, hearing, smell, taste or touch. This special capacity for perception basically contributes to the ability to discern and recognize sound and practical intelligence.

These claim of inherent ability to discern intelligence are the concern of philosophers for the past years. They try to determine the basis of the sources of knowledge and with agreeing upon standards on how human faculties perceive.

Intuition. This is a direct perception of fact and truth, which is independent of any reasoning process and considered one possible source of knowledge. Some individuals usually associate intuition with feeling which is suddenly felt and consequently, makes one certain about what is felt. It may be assumed that the knowledge acquired from intuition is the direct product of deliberate and conscious reasoning or immediate perception.

There are a number of views which men tend to hold with respect to intuition. According to some philosophers, the element of intuition may be present in our awareness of what our senses perceive. Intuition is the result of the accumulation of one’s past experience and thinking which are shortcuts to the knowledge that the senses and reflecting thinking would reveal.

Intuition is a higher kind of knowledge that is different from nature and is disclose by the senses. It enable us to gain a vision of reality and to experience inspiration and spiritual unity.

Intuition’s weakness is that it may not convincingly be a safe method when used alone. Intellect, sense experience and reason must be considered in the quest for knowledge.

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What is Intelligence?

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Human being is naturally intelligent. His brain is composed of 12-15 billion neurons which is the cause of his inherent capacity to think, to solve problems and to address essentials for survival.

Intelligence as defined by Webster is, “the ability to learn or understand or deal with new or trying situations”. This definition covers many territory. It leaves open questions about where intelligence comes from, whether it is unitary or many-sided or whether it can be changed or be taught.

Most developers of the models of teaching have arrived with multiple questions on the nature of intelligence. As different as they are in their models, yet they share common beliefs about intelligence. That gender, race and ethnicity do not deter intelligence development. That intelligence is fixed, but it can be learned and taught. And that intelligence is multidimensional and has aspects that can be capitalized with specific models of learning.

Human intelligence vary. Each individual possess unique and distinct character different from the other. The following shortly encompasses varying character of intelligence.

Body Smart

Body smart intelligence is related to physical movement and the knowledge of the body and how it functions. It includes the ability to use the body to express emotions, to play a game, and to interpret and to invoke effective body language. An individual who has this kind of intelligence has common characteristics. He can process knowledge through bodily sensation; has excellent fine-motor coordination; gut feelings about things; or move around often with hyperactive and athletics skills.

People Smart

People smart individual possessed interpersonal intelligence used in person-to-person relationships. It includes the ability to communicate with others and to have empathy for their feelings and beliefs. An individual who has this kind of intelligence can think and process by relating, cooperating, and communicating with others; lead among his peers; has uncanny ability to sense feelings and intentions of others; understand people and mediates conflict; organizer, and communicator; at times manipulative and motivator; and has many friends.

Self Smart

Self smart intelligence is based on knowledge of oneself. This includes thinking, emotional responses, self-reflection, and awareness of metaphysical concepts. An individual who has self smart intelligence is skilled in inner focusing; displays a strong personality; has deep awareness of inner feelings, dreams and ideas; reflective and analytical; and tends to shy away from term activities.

Music Smart

An individual who has music intelligence possess the ability to recognize tonal patterns, rhythm and beat. He is sensitive to environmental sounds, human voice and musical instruments. He can also immediately respond and appreciate music, lead in songs, and sensitive to environmental sounds.

Nature Smart

Naturalistic intelligence includes the ability to recognize distinctions in the natural world, and to use this ability productively. One who possess this intelligence enjoys the outdoors and feels comfortable with nature, can live off the land and can easily classify plants and animals.

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What Are The Criteria And Components Of A Good Instructional Module?

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These are the criteria of a good instructional module.

  1. It should be self-contained.
  2. It should be self-pacing.
  3. Its topic or subject matter should be short enough and well-defined.
  4. It should be adequately motivated.
  5. It should provide opportunities for interaction with the learner.
  6. Its objectives and activities should be properly sequenced.
  7. It should be written in clear, correct language suitable to the level of the learner.
  8. It should be so written as to make it interesting and appealing to the learner.
  9. It should bear no wrong implication to other subject matter or values.
  10. It should utilize every opportunity to achieve effective outcomes of learning.
  11. It should contain all the necessary components of a good module.
  12. The components of the module should be highly supportive to each other.

These are the components of a complete module.

  1. Title
  2. Target Population
  3. Overview
  4. Objectives
  5. Instructions to the Learner
  6. Entry Behavior and Prerequisite Skills and Knowledge
  7. Pretests
  8. Pretests Feedback and Evaluation
  9. Learning Activities
  10. Post-test
  11. Post-test Feedback and Evaluation
  12. Teacher’s Manual or Guide
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The Task of Logic

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Logic maybe defined as the science of reasoning or correct thinking. It is a non-empirical science like mathematics. It is neither experimental nor observational science like biology, psychology or physics. Moreover, it does not employ the actual mental or physical process that occurred in thinking when one tries to reason out.

Despite that the aforestated empirical disciplines are more advance at present, nonetheless they could not thoroughly explain what goes on in the human being’s head when he reasons out. It cannot tell whether his reasoning is correct or incorrect.

To distinguish correct reasoning from incorrect reasoning wherefore is the task of logic.

In the introductory study of logic, often one will use categorical syllogism to distinguish validity and invalidity of an argument. It uses two concrete statements as premises and out of these produce a conclusion. This is how the reasoning process maybe thought of.

In drawing conclusions out of the premises 1, 2, 3, the details on the actual mental process is not therefore the proper concern of logic. Instead, to determine whether the conclusion on the basis of the premises is warranted correct is the logic’s concern.

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Confucianism – A Strong Influence

All philosophies actually influenced us one way or another. However, Confucianism leaves a mark and influenced us strongly and greatly in a sense that our life is guided with some of its disciplines.

As a person, we began to understand what we believed in life and how we see things lightly. As a teacher, Confucianism taught us to deal with our students and inspire them. It always reminds us to love our students and never to give up with them. Whenever we are on a verge of anger because of some students’ fault, we always think the principle of Confucianism; that we should be compassionate and be a role model to them. We uplift the students’ moral character because it is their best shield in the midst of the world that full of drudgeries and sham.

Moreover as a parent, we find ourselves keeping on instilling to our children the good manners. At the same time, we manifest it to them. We always ensure that our children have develop the right attitude by guiding them with their developmental tasks. We do also incorporate proper discipline to them concomitant with love and care. Every time our children commit mistakes, we do not impose direct and immediate sanctions. We still apply a process about what they have done. We ask them how they feel about it. Then we explain to them their mistakes and set out rules.

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How to Study

33 how to studyFrancis S. Bacon in his article “Of Studies” had presented an articulated view about studies. He is precisely correct when he mentioned about its service, usage and purpose. There are however ineffective ways as to how others, particularly students, done it especially in the course of their academic endeavors. Consequently, their improper manner of doing studies had only help them less after all.

As regard to the manner for effective studies, particularly for students, the following tips are helpful:

When you study, do not just simply read the book or reference. You should completely understand the substance or context implied in the sentence or paragraph. It is always helpful that once you read, ask yourself question/s which are related thereon, much more if there are points which are  not clear to you. Then find its answer. Never let go a line, sentence or paragraph which you do not completely understand.

The next thing that you should do after going through the whole paragraph is to try to explain or discuss it. If you cannot remember the exact words the author of the book or reference are using, try to explain the same using your own words. In this manner, it will be easy for you to remember what you have studied.

When you study, do not focus on memorizing the words. It will only cause you a headache. If you are studying on legal or medical terms, it is helpful to familiarize it by reading the words repeatedly. After reading, ask yourself questions and then recite. For mathematical solutions, analyze the given problem carefully then practice solving repeatedly.

Thorough study will take time. It needs also patience. If your brain already feels heavy while studying, do not push its limit. Our brain is like a machine. It needs rest when severely used. When relaxing, it is helpful either to listen to your favorite music, sing or dance. It may be awkward but these activities are effective stress reliever. Try also to eat chocolate or banana.

 

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A Glimpse on Curriculum Development

1.) Objective Model

In a curriculum development there are models that serve as guide to help the teachers to plan and create an excellent curriculum to have a more precise tool for teaching. One of these is the objective model which is developed by Tyler. This model is also called the mean-end model because what needs to be achieved must be realized with planning of methods and strategies to be implemented. Tyler stressed that the school should identify the purpose of its existence, how can it be addressed, how can this be materialized and how can this be known that it succeeded. With these questions, there is now the advent of logical sequences with appropriate learning experience to be observed and careful evaluation. So, this model follows a definite process – 4 steps which require a definite outcome. The first is to identify a specific objective that needs to be attained which is actually the most critical or hardest part since steps 2 to 4 will only follow suit. In other words, after identifying what objectives to be achieved selecting learning experience or what content to be introduced will be promptly made as well as organizing this learning experience or analyzing what will be the methods used. Then, evaluation will follow if these things had been successfully accomplished. In general, the objective model is a fixed structure that must begin in creating objectives and after which, are the means on how to attain this end.

Advantages:

 There is a vivid direction on the learning process and a concrete guide on what are the things that needs to be done because the objectives are presented very clearly.

  • There is a systematized flow of curriculum for proper implementation.
  • There is rationality of the sequence of the curriculum elements.

Disadvantages:

 Basically the curriculum development is evolving so there is no such thing as fixed as what this model is advocating.

  • The core of its curriculum objective is insufficiently discussed.
  • It cannot measure the learning outcomes.
  • It limits the capabilities of students to learn more in different ways and aspects.
  • No coherence between the end and means.
  • Students’ performance cannot be predicted without knowing first the students consequently there’s no assurance of how effective it is.
  • Results vary and are difficult to measure so it is not good to prejudge the learning abilities of the students.
  • Not necessarily that education objective will be identified first because it may not be relevant to all other subject matter.

Reflection:

As I have observe in this model it is like a subject – centered approach in which there is no consideration on the part of the learner. This model underscored primarily on making a precise objective that the learner should carry out without realizing their capacity and readiness of learning. It seems to be very ideal that the objectives made must be followed. It is like imposing a policy and students have no right to complain and are only to follow it otherwise unfavorable consequences might happen. For me, this is not quite beneficial to the learners because their learning is already determined well in fact it could not be.

2.) Interaction Model

Another model that is useful to the curriculum developer, authored by Taba and Cohen, is the interaction model. It is called as such since the curriculum development is perceived as a dynamic process contrary to the objective model. According to this model, the four curriculum element is interrelated and has no fixed structure. Interrelated in the sense that they work together – if there is a change in one element every element is affected and should be changed as well and each one of them is working for one other, it exhibit cohesion and unity. And any of the four elements will be present first, there is no specific order or arrangement for this model, it will only rely during the progress of the actual implementation and any of it will be next.

Advantages:

There is a freedom of choice on what is the sequence to do that is suited for the subject matter and at the same time in regards to the flow of activities.

  • The structure is much dependent on what will happen during the actual application and proves to be efficient.
  • If something went wrong with the prepared plan it could be changed to a more effective one, it is very flexible that you could adjust it any time.
  • It could easily respond to the needs and concerns of the learner and it considers the various aspects that affect learning.

Disadvantages:

There is ambiguity in terms of identifying the learning objectives to be attained.

  • It is not properly structured that it ca go for any direction that might lead to a half-baked product.

Reflection:

It is interesting to note that there is an approach whereby changes happen every time something turns out not well during implementation and this is interaction model. You don’t need to follow a certain flow or framework which you think might not work. You have the liberty to sequence the four curriculum element i.e. objectives, content, methods and evaluation; while considering the nature of the learner and the other factors that can contribute to learning. Even if it has no definite structure as guide but you could eventually analyze things and arrange it appropriately according to the ability of the learner and the subject matter. It helps you to be creative and innovative to really meet the needs of the students. I can now say that this model is a student-centered approach.

 3.) Process Model

The process model is a more complicated thing than the above mentioned models. It comprises with all the factors essential to optimized learning. It elaborates the needed components which must be given attention and consideration. This model is very structured and more detailed than the objective model, wherein you are guided with a step by step process to ultimately reach its main purpose relative to the curriculum development. The first thing to do is to begin with the guiding principles such as the different perspectives of the child behavior, teaching, learning and the structure of knowledge to prepare on what lesson plans should be made that is the content and the process selection. If the lesson plan is already crafty done then learning situation comes next, deliberating the physical situation, teacher behavior, and pupil behavior and resource usage. After those things, it will be evaluated if the aftermath is worth achieving.

Advantages:

It is a very specific and detailed structure that guides you to create an effective curriculum.

  • It is well systematized and directs to a precise learning outcomes.
  • Has a coherent arrangement of element which will provide efficient and productive output.

Disadavantages:

It has no clear objectives and might lead to confusion.

  • It prevents the developer to be creative and innovative because everything is provided.
  • It needs longer preparation because there are a lot of factors or elements to be considered.

Reflection:

I find process model a very helpful tool in creating a curriculum because everything is specified; all you need to do is determine those factors and design a curriculum easily and effectively. It can make you to become a good curriculum developer if you only know how to apply the knowledge you acquired, identify content in regards to the subject matter and are keen to observe the situation; then consolidate those things and can already generate a very good curriculum but are still subject for an extensive evaluation to merit the achievement of it. Hence, this model is definitely valuable and credible you are seeing things in a wide perspective and examining things thoroughly.

My own model is called – “Relation – Process Model”

 This model accentuates the mutual relationship of the different elements – the Subject Matter, Content, Thrust, Environment, Instrument and the Evaluation. These six components relate to each other and formed a logical process to construct a well – developed curriculum. The Subject matter should be identified first in order to formulate a suitable content and could identify a specific thrust to give direction to a right course of study. Subsequently, environment should be conscientiously examined and accounted so that appropriate instrument will be finely structured prior to implementation or application. And evaluation is to gauge if it is operationally effective and productive.