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Why Involve Students In A Research?

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Student research is a teaching methodology that is employed as a special task in connection with lessons planned. At a certain point, the teacher may require two or three or a number of students to research individually or by group on certain topic/s. The topic would be for instance on the provisions of the bill titled Clean Air Act and the incidence of the pollution in a busy street in the area.

Once the same is/are reported to the class, the current information out of the research will be of great help in augmenting discussion the causes and prevention of air pollution.

An individual research may be undertaken in the laboratory where simple tools and equipment are available. A library research can be a search of information from books and other printed materials.

An important focus on student research is on developing the ability among students to gather information with an end in view of finding answers to questions or problems by analyzing said information and drawing a conclusion.

Unfortunately, while students are good in gathering data that could serve as evidences, many lack the ability to continue organizing, analyzing and evaluating them in order to arrive at the learning objective.

With this, depending on the student’s level of maturity, the range of knowledge-search may start from simple and best surveys or interviews. The more capable and experienced student may undertake a complete study by employing a number of science processes and following the stems of a scientific method.

Student research methodology can able the students to gather and determine relevant and much-needed data and information and organize it in art orderly manner. It also affords training in the rise of appropriate science processes. By this, the proficiency in its consistent employment is assured.

Through constant practice, the ability to formulate conclusions and generalizations based in sufficient and reliable data among students is enhanced. It personalizes instruction thus allows the choice of topics to be studied depending their interests and motivation.

Students can develop a deep sense of appreciation and gratitude for the great achievements of research experts and recognized scientists whose findings are being enjoyed and used world-wide.

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Bibliographical Research: Understanding the Patterns and Risk of Truancy Among Youth Students

Abstract

One of the serious problems every school is facing is truancy. This is happening to all countries around the globe and whether the school is private or public. School administrators had difficulty preventing it or addressing its prevalent occurrence and tried to devise programs that might help the students do well in school and reduced the risk of non-attendance. Truant students has become delinquent and soon to be a liability of the society if they will not be saved early. But what contributes their negative attitude towards school where there are other students like them enjoys being a student and even developed into a more productive individual. Who is responsible and how can this be avoided. This paper intends to see the backbone of truancy.

 Introduction

Definition of truancy differs from school to school however most schools define truancy as any unexcused absence, where unexcused means the student has left school property without the parental or school permission. A student is labeled “truant” when he acquired the mandated number of days absent in school. These absences are caused by students of their own accord and free will and truancy is not associated with school phobia, in which a child fails to attend school because of anxiety (Dyer, 1992). Schools must take control of their truancy problems or they are bound to be overtaken by it (Collins, 2001). Basically, truancy problem is shared throughout the world (Reid, 1987) it occurs in rural, suburban and urban schools and all classes of families. Kerslake, Lange & Bennies (1997), shows that schools are concerned about the problem of truancy and are attempting to eliminate truant behavior with the resources available when it is a problem in their school. Whitney (1994) noted that truancy like poverty has a lengthy past history, and two have always been closely related.

Contributing Factors

The root cause of truancy are complex and varied and can include drug use, membership in a peer group of truants or gang, lack of direction in education, poor academic performance, and violence at or near school (Naylor, 1987). In one survey conducted by Eugene (1992), it reveals that students cited boredom and loss of interest in school, suspensions and bad relationships with teachers as the major factors. On the other hand, most schools believed that truancy is related primarily to student problems with family and peers. Seemingly, peers have an undeniable influence on student’s decision to become truant. Garry (1996) reported that 84 percent of the interviewed truants said their friends skipped school.

There’s an overwhelming proportion of truant youth face major problems in their lives that challenge their ability to attend school. Some students willingly attend school, but others do not, often because of negative factors or influences in their lives. According to Bell et al. (1994) & Corville – Smith et al. (1998), contributors to truancy are often divided into school, family, and personal factors.

Family factors include homelessness (Twaite & Lampert, 1997), poverty, single-parent families, large family size, and transportation difficulties (Jones et al., 2002). Other family factors such as elevated levels of family conflict, and ineffective parental disciplinary practices including inconsistency, both extremes of over-protectedness and neglect, and rejection also play role (Bell et al., 1994 & Corville – Smith et al., 1998). Eger and Angold (2003) stressed that truant children come from dysfunctional homes; those homes are lead by caregivers who are more concerned about their own pleasures and convenience than the welfare of their children; while some caregivers have a difficult time because of poverty, work schedules or transitioning to a single parent household; the majority simply refuse to exercise self-control or basic order in their homes. In addition, research shows that truants often come from low-income families; have parents who lack high school degrees; are victims of abuse or neglect; have mental health problems; or have parents with histories criminality or substance abuse (Seeley & Krueger, 2006).

Indeed, Heilbrunn (2006) suggested many truants have significant problems in their home lives, includes poverty, parents with mental health issues, parents who work such long hours that they can provide little guidance, younger siblings or children to care for, or the death, illness or incarceration of a family member. It is no surprise that children who face such challenges are not focused in school. Dr. Gerald Patterson sums the issue this way, “Parenting plays a critical role in the development process of children. Early disciplines failures are a primary casual factor in the development of conduct problems. Harsh discipline, low supervision, lack of parental involvement all add to the development of aggressive children (Collins, 2001).

Further, school factors include poor relations with teachers (Corville-Smith et al., 1998), inappropriate academic placement (Jones et al., 2002), bullying or feeling of academic failure (King & Bernstein, 2001), and ineffective applied attendance policies (Bell et al., 1994). Truants generally report less attachment to school, and less satisfactory experiences at school than non-truants (Seeley & Krueger, 2006).

Subsequently, personal factors include poor self-esteem, feelings of academic incompetence, poor relationships with other students (Corvilee- Smith et al., 1998), and gang involvement (Fritsch et al., 1999). Also, Gullat & Dwayne (1997) illustrated that there are some are highly intelligent and bored with school, regardless of a child’s circumstances; unstructured time provides opportunities for youngsters to get into serious trouble.

As revealed by Henry and Huizinga (2007), predictors of truancy are the following: disengagement from school; lack of success in school; association with delinquent peers; personal delinquent values; and lack of family attachment.

Consequence or Possible Outcomes

Findings resulting from legislative researches disclosed that truants are seen loitering in public places during school hours disregarding the standing policy that students incurring 20 absences are considered dropped (Bongat, 2004). Absenteeism (Rohman, 1993) is detrimental to student’s achievement, promotion, graduation, self-esteem, and employment potential. Clearly students who miss school fall behind their peers in the classroom. This in turn leads to low self-esteem and increases the likelihood that at-risk students will drop out of school. Garry (1996) asserts that student non-attendance is a problem that extends much further than the school it as well affects the student, the family, and the community.

Truancy outcomes increased risk for: poor academic performance; school dropout; delinquency; teenage pregnancy; and substance abuse (Henry & Huizinga, 2007). Rohman (1993) identified that truancy is an early warning signs of students headed for potential delinquent activity, social isolation or educational failure via suspension, expulsion or dropping out. Then a study of Robins and Ratcliff (1978) found that of those students who were often truant in elementary school and in high school, 75 percent failed to graduate. Failure to graduate, in turn, is associated with diminished earning potential in adulthood and other poor outcomes. Truant students are often taking the first step toward a lifetime of problems. Most experts believe that truancy is a powerful and accurate predictor of involvement in crime and violence (Garry, 1996).

Based on Wilson (1993), children who are habitual truants are more likely to engage in undesirable and antisocial behaviors such as gang membership, marijuana use, alcohol use, inhalant and hard drug use, high-risk sexual behavior, cigarette smoking, suicidal behaviors, theft and vandalism. Relatively, truancy is a gateway to serious violent and non-violent crime. Law enforcement agencies have linked high rates of truancy to high rates of daytime burglary and vandalism (Robins, Lee & Ratcliff, 1978). Ingersoll and LeBeof (1997) identified that these young habitual truants have more employment and marital problems and jailed when they become adults.

Battling Truancy

It is apparent that preventive measures should be implemented in hope to protect the youth. The first step is to involve parents in all aspects of truancy prevention. To stop truants, the school must be able to provide parents with notification of their child’s absence on the day the absence occurs. Schools are advised to create an efficient attendance-tracking system and to communicate students’ absences to parents immediately (De Kalb, 1999). Parents must take responsibility for keeping their children in school (Sorensen, 2008). Most often, truants become delinquent (Gavin, 1997) so establishing rapport with family early on is critical.

Jenkins (1995) accentuates that parents need to seek help from the school, social services agencies and mental health professionals at the first sign that their child is skipping school. Parents should have an understanding of the importance of daily attendance and the relationship between truancy and negative outcomes. The school and the parents need to join forces in common mission to promote good attendance for the students (Rosen & Dyblacht, 1994). It is crucial to avoid the “blame game” in which parents blame the school and the school blames the parents.

Moreover, at the school level, perhaps one of the most important challenges that should be addressed is developing a consistent, accurate method of tracking student attendance (Beuhring, 2000). Schools (Jenkins, 1995) must have firm policies on the consequences for truancy, all students should be aware of the sanctions that will be imposed if they are absent without an excuse. By addressing related risk factors with an attendance policy that works, teachers and administrators can give students a much better chance of succeeding (Eugene, 1992). As suggested by Heilbrunn (2006), schools should review their policies to ensure they are not inadvertently using what were term “push-out policies” that actually discourages school attendance such as automatic failure as a result of missed classes or suspension as a punishment for truancy. Dealing with truancy (Baker, Sigmon and Nugent, 2001) involves both taking early and effective action to get the students back to the school, and also taking steps to engage the students at school once they are back.

However, the schools lack resources in many areas (Lenz, 1991). Partnership with law enforcement, social services, business and faith-based and community organizations can address this lack of resources while engaging greater awareness and support from the community (McNeal, 1999). Consequently, the child must become engaged in school (Marks, 2000), feel like a part of the school, understand its importance, and be motivated to do the schoolwork, otherwise he or she is not likely to learn much from the classes.

Morris (1991), believed that society has a responsibility to ensure they gain the tools necessary for successful adult life, otherwise we perpetuate the cycle of low education and low opportunity. Problems not solved among this generating will likely surface again in the next. Solutions can be divided into four categories: strict laws and regulations, in-school programs, computer technology and community solutions (Gulatt and Lemoine, 1997). Some communities have authorized the police to patrol neighborhoods where truant youth are likely to spend the school hours. Day time curfews were also effective in some provinces and cities where school age children can be questioned if they are on the streets during class hours (Gavin, 1997). Davidson (2004) stipulated that the earlier the intervention occurs, the better.

Conclusion

In summary, this paper presents the contributing factor of truancy, its effects and consequences and how to design intervention program to address these serious problem. As seen, truancy is a problem that needs critical analysis and further research to sufficiently generate a best tool to combat it. There are many factors to consider and several angles to work into. It requires commitment and dedication from the school, parents and community to really help save the truant students. If we want to live a better society and lessen the case of crimes and other criminal activities we must start thinking how to cradle truant students because they are the potential criminals or delinquent and before they become as such they need to be corrected as early as possible.

Truancy is becoming a stressful issue to the school especially to the parents. But how can we address it if the school and parents won’t function accordingly. One of the greatest factors that cause truancy is family or home environment since most of the truants belong to dysfunctional and low-income family it’s difficult to battle and win against truancy. It is imperative to deal first to the root causes and start from there. Youths should be guided well in hope for a better future.

References

Baker, Myriam L., Jane Nady Sigmon, and M. Elaine Nugent. “Truancy Reduction: Keeping Students in School.” Juvenile Justice Bulletin U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, September 2001.

Barlett, Larry and others. (1978) “Absences A Model Policy and Rule.” Iowa State Department of Public Instruction, Des Moines.

Bell, A.J., L.A. Rosen, & D. Dyblacht. (1994). Truancy Intervention. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 27 (3), pp. 203-211.

Dyer, Elisabeth (14 April 2006). “Life’s a beach for many students on senior skip day”. St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved on December 23, 2010, from http://www.stpetersburgtimes.net/social issues.html

Eugene, O.R.(1996). Truancy: First Step to a Lifetime of Problems. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention,.

Gullatt, David E., and Dwayne A. Lemoine. (1997). “Truancy: What’s a Principal To Do?”American Secondary Education 1.

Heilbrunn, J.Z. (2004). Detention for Truants: Exploring the Issues. National Center for School Engagement, 2, 6-11.

Hirshi, T. (1969). Causes of Delinquency. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Ingersoll, Sarah, and Donni LeBoeuf.(1997). “Reaching Out to Youth of the Educational Mainstream.” Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Jenkins, P.H. (1995). School delinquency and school commitment. Sociology of Education, 68, pp.221-239.

Marks, H.M. (2000). Student engagement in instructional activity: Patterns in the elementary, middle, and high schools years. American Education Research Journal, 37, 153-160.

Naylor, Michelle.(1987). Reducing the Dropout Rate through Career and Vocational Education. Overview. ERIC Digest Series. Columbus,

Robins, Lee, and Kathryn Ratcliff.(1978). Long Range Outcomes Associated with School Truancy. Washington, DC: Public Health Service.

Rohrman, Doug.(1993). “Combating Truancy in Our Schools: A Community Effort.” NASSAP Bulletin 76.

Wilson, Kare Gae. (1993). “Tough on Truants.” American School Board Journal 180.

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Teacher Perceptions of Behavioral Problems of Students of Luray II National High School (Day Session)

Rationale

In most public schools, it has been identified that lack of discipline is indeed the biggest problem they are confronting. According to national reports and public opinion surveys they have depicted a widespread dissatisfaction with teachers and school administrators handling of students’ behavior problems. However, teachers and school administrators report that disruptive students drain energy, strain nerves, and stymie the learning process. The way teachers handle students’ behavior problems determines the level of order in the classroom, and therefore, can indicate the general health of the school.
Psychologists have long recognized that many segments of society – families, schools, and communities – have significant responsibilities in fostering the formation of children’s personality and character. Consequently, the education enterprise cannot be the ideal to right all wrongs.
Studies of regular classroom teachers’ perceptions of and tolerance for problem behavior have suggested that accommodation of behavioral difficulties may be less feasible then accommodation of instructional needs (Ritter, 2009). Research shows that the behavioral standards and expectations of regular classroom teachers found to be narrow, intense, and very demanding. It concludes that a significant number of children would fall short of minimal levels of competence, and that the potential implications of such conflict for school success and adjustment capability are not encouraging.
Classroom context has been identified as a critical variable in dealing with problem behavior, and stands as a potential barrier to any considered merger of regular and special education (Stainback, 2004). Indeed, the classroom setting itself may contribute to elevated ratings of problem behavior on the part of regular classroom teachers.
The present study sought to investigate teacher perceptions of the behavior of students who were identified as seriously emotionally disturbed in regular classrooms.

This paper describes the results of a survey designed to explore perception of teachers in Luray II National High School.

The Study

A total of 17 teachers (16 national item and 1 locally funded) from Luray II National High School participated in this research. The teachers responded to the following open-ended questions:

1. What do you think is the most serious behavior problem of students you have contact with?
2. How do you handle the problem you identified as most serious?
3. How do you think schools could effectively work toward eliminating behavior problems?

The responses were coded and analyzed by percentages. Because the teachers who participated in this study were not randomly selected, and because of the relativity small number of teachers, caution should be used in interpretation of the results. However, some rather clear trends emerged and warrant attention.

Findings
Most Serious Behavior Problems
Habitual tardiness (36%) & habitual absences (32%) were identified as the most serious problems by teachers in Luray II National High School. These problems appeared to peak as early as the first month of the school year among first year and second year students and decrease in third year and fourth year.
Lack of interest (20%) and habitual cutting classes (10%) were the second most frequently mentioned problem by teachers in this school especially among second year high school students. Poor study habits and restlessness with 4% were reported less frequently by teachers they were more common in first year and third year.

Handling Behavior Problems

Teachers in Luray II National High School (Day) frequently reported handling behavior problems by talking to the individual student and/or the entire class about the behavior by using a mild desist (saying the student’s name and requesting appropriate behavior (10.71%), teacher and parent conference (50%) and seeking the assistance of Guidance Counselor (7.14%). The least frequently used methods by teachers were trying to be understanding of the student’s problem, treating them nicely, teaching and guiding them, giving individual attention and home visitation with 3.57%.

Eliminating Problem Behavior

How could the school work toward eliminating problem behavior? Consistent rules, with consistent reinforcement of those rules, were the most frequently reported suggestion of teachers (23.53%). Cooperation between parents and school personnel was perceived as a solution by some teachers (11.76%). In service sessions, workshops, and related educational methods to make teachers and parents aware of techniques of child management and for dealing with problem behavior were more frequently suggested (11.76%). Some teachers recommended that there will be more clubs or recognized organization in school; teachers should do their respective responsibility, constant monitor of the child’s behavior , conduct survey why students came late, provide students with interesting activity/task to be accomplished which obtained 5.88%.

Recommendations

Teachers’ concerns about their students’ most frequently and seriously troublesome behavior are of international interest to manager and policy-makers in education services. With the recent increase in international interest in education, especially in raising educational standards, it is hardly surprising that these concerns remain a significant area of educational research interest.
Teachers’ attention was aroused when they confronted problematic behavior of students since these behaviors will result in danger for the teacher or the students themselves. At present teachers’ concern were mainly focused on conduct difficulties. The current study findings now call for the enrichment of teachers’ repertoires with skill for coping effectively with behavior or conduct difficulties met in their students. Then knowledge of problem behavior, how the teachers handled, and how to eliminate such behavior provides a clearer picture for school administrator, school counselor, and teachers trainers who should help teachers to deal more realistically with these problems. Teacher trainers could direct either initial teacher training or in-service training to both the most serious and the most frequently occurring behaviors. Teachers are likely to feel worried about such behaviors and they would welcome alternative methods of dealing with them in their class. Consequently, these behaviors should be targeted in teacher training programs dealing with classroom management. One important tool in the teachers’ survival kit is to learn quickly ways to handle high-frequency problems.

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Level of Self-esteem and Depression among First Year Students Who Came from Broken Homes

INTRODUCTION

           Human has a thrust to improve. It is a human tendency to strive for self-development and fulfillment to continue the cycle of life and achieve a worthwhile esteem of the self. Self-esteem as stated by Rosenberg is a favorable and unfavorable attitude toward the self; it needs a greater understanding to realize the individuals’ value or worth. According to Maslow, it is imperative to satisfy human basic needs to become successfully self-fulfilled and that includes self-esteem, which is essential and indispensable for growth and survival. But as man seeks for self-fulfillment he or she may either have a high or low self-esteem, which will affect his/her life in the process. Further, there are many factors that contributed in acquiring a high or low self-esteem such as social status, family, peers, teachers, experiences, and many more.

As believed, one having a high self-esteem has a positive regard of oneself and were motivated and determined to achieve success in the future. While, one having a low self-esteem is believe to have a negative outlook and is at a higher risk of becoming depressed. Indeed, self-esteem is related to depression that when we feel depressed we feel down and loss an impulse to go on further and thus a clear indicator of a low self-esteem. Moreover, it leads to a person to cope with their depression by any means oblivious of the value of his self which could apparently imperil his life in the future.

Hence, it is the intention of the researcher to know the relevance of self-esteem and depression in studying the level of self-esteem and depression of the first year high school students who came from broken homes for they are suffering a serious problem which impedes them to experience a normal life. Also, this study aims to find out on how these students view their life more specifically to their own self.

PROBLEM

 Statement of the problem

 This study aimed to determine the level of self-esteem and depression of first year high school students who came from broken homes.

Test at .05 level if there is a significant correlation between self-esteem and depression among the first year high school students who came from broken homes.

Is there a correlation between self-esteem and depressionamong the first year high school students who came from broken homes?

NULL HYPOTHESIS (Ho)

There is no significant correlation between self-esteem and depression among the first year high school students who came from broken homes.

 ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS (Ha)

There is a significant correlation between self-esteem and depression among the first year high school students who came from broken homes?

 DATA

Student Self-Esteem (X) Depression (Y)
A 2.71 1.95
B 2.95 1.67
C 2.29 1.86
D 3.00 1.90
E 2.57 1.71
F 3.00 1.85
G 2.86 1.47
H 2.76 1.24
I 2.76 1.14
J 2.8 1.71
K 2.24 1.95
L 2.00 1.62
M 2.87 1.71
N 2.38 1.48
O 2.57 1.67
P 2.71 1.38
Q 2.24 1.81
R 2.28 1.48
S 2.62 1.38
T 2.24 1.24
U 2.76 1.48

 

 CHOICE OF STATISTIC

Pearson r or Product – Moments Correlation (r)

 

 

Student Self-Esteem (X)  

 X

 

X – X

 

(X – X)2

Depression (Y)  

 

Y – Y

 

 (Y – Y)2

 

(X – X)( Y – Y) 

A 2.71 2.6 0.11 0.0121 1.95 1.6 0.35 0.1225 0.0385
B 2.95 2.6 0.35 0.1225 1.67 1.6 0.07 0.0049 0.0245
C 2.29 2.6 -0.31 0.0961 1.86 1.6 0.26 0.0676 -0.0806
D 3 2.6 0.4 0.16 1.9 1.6 0.3 0.09 0.12
E 2.57 2.6 -0.03 0.0009 1.71 1.6 0.11 0.0121 -0.0033
F 3 2.6 0.4 0.16 1.85 1.6 0.25 0.0625 0.1
G 2.86 2.6 0.26 0.0676 1.47 1.6 -0.13 0.0169 -0.0338
H 2.76 2.6 0.16 0.0256 1.24 1.6 -0.36 0.1296 -0.0576
I 2.76 2.6 0.16 0.0256 1.14 1.6 -0.46 0.2116 -0.0736
J 2.8 2.6 0.2 0.04 1.71 1.6 0.11 0.0121 0.022
K 2.24 2.6 -0.36 0.1296 1.95 1.6 0.35 0.1225 -0.126
L 2 2.6 -0.6 0.36 1.62 1.6 0.02 0.0004 -0.012
M 2.87 2.6 0.27 0.0729 1.71 1.6 0.11 0.0121 0.0297
N 2.38 2.6 -0.22 0.0484 1.48 1.6 -0.12 0.0144 0.0264
O 2.57 2.6 -0.03 0.0009 1.67 1.6 0.07 0.0049 -0.0021
P 2.71 2.6 0.11 0.0121 1.38 1.6 -0.22 0.0484 -0.0242
Q 2.24 2.6 -0.36 0.1296 1.81 1.6 0.21 0.0441 -0.0756
R 2.28 2.6 -0.32 0.1024 1.48 1.6 -0.12 0.0144 0.0384
S 2.62 2.6 0.02 0.0004 1.38 1.6 -0.22 0.0484 -0.0044
T 2.24 2.6 -0.36 0.1296 1.24 1.6 -0.36 0.1296 0.1296
U 2.76 2.6 0.16 0.0256 1.48 1.6 -0.12 0.0144 -0.0192
N = 21 ∑X=54.61      

(X – X)2 =1.72

∑Y=33.7      

(Y – Y)2 =1.18

 

(X – X)(Y – Y)

=0.02

 

FINDINGS

tcv (0.04) < ttv (2.093)

DECISION
Accept Ho.

 ANALYSIS

There is no significant correlation between self-esteem and depression among the first year high school students who came from broken homes.

 CONCLUSION

One may have high level of self-esteem however has low level of depression.

 IMPLICATION

Students’ self-esteem has nothing to do with depression.

 RECOMMENDATION

Enhance students’ self-esteem through seminar – workshops and provide therapy to students’ who have high depression.

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The Relationship of Broken Homes Towards the Academic Performance of the Students of Luray II National High School

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study:

Broken homes are experience by some of the students not only with those in poverty line families but same goes to middle and higher class families. Parents chose to live separately regardless how their children feel and its impact to their lives, however, there are still parents in spite of the situation still supports and care of their children in their studies, and others.

It is worthy to note that majority of high school students in the country who got poor or failing grades in their academic subjects came from broken homes. Some of them as we saw were not just having poor academic performance but instead they let themselves be retained at their year level after dropping-out their respective subjects. It is timely to identify or to determine if students in high school who came from broken homes are greatly affected in their academic classes.

To find out the answers of this query, the researcher aims to study “The Academic Performance of Students Coming from Broken Homes”.

 THE PROBLEM

Statement of the Problem:

This research study aimed to explore and determine the academic performance of high school students coming from broken homes. Likewise, it would found out whether students coming from broken homes affect their academic performance during the academic year 2010-2011.

Specifically, this research sought to answer the following sub-problems:

1.) What is the profile of Luray II National High School students in terms of:

1.1. gender; and

1.2. age?

2.)  What is the level of academic performance of the high school students coming from broken homes?

3.)  Is there a significant divergence from the normal curve of high school students’ academic performance coming from broken homes?

 

Statement Hypotheses

This study tested the following null hypotheses:

Ho1: There is no significant correlation between gender and academic performance.

Ho2: There is no significant correlation between age and academic performance.

Ho3: There is no significant divergence from the normal curve of high school students’ academic performance coming from broken homes.

Significance of the Study:

             The findings of this study would provide a characterization of the institution as a whole, which have investigative value with respect to the administrative, academic, and student guidance services.

This study would be beneficial to the administrators of the school since they can pick up possible remedies to address the growing numbers of students in the country belonging to a broken or disoriented family who thereby experienced academic problems or poor academic performance, if not failed or drop-out.

The teachers would gain insights to the underlying cause of the students’ academic problems and how they can be of help to the students to cope their life and academic difficulties.

For the guidance counselors, knowledge of the academic performance and problems encountered by the students would lead them to adjust the program of guidance services in order to include ways and means that would enable students to enhance their academic performance. Also, they would include provisions in the program that would assist students’ resolve the problem confronting them.

The parents shall be benefited of the output of the study for they can understand the importance of their respective role as a parent and this shall help them realize to value their family and give more quality time to their children.

The output of the study would be beneficial for the readers and future researchers for them to know the significant relationship of broken or disoriented family towards academic performance of the students so that they will be interested to investigate further the reasons of poor academic performance.

Scope and Limitation of the Study        

             This study primarily focuses on the academic performance of the high school students who came from identified broken homes. The sample selection was limited to only one public school and that is the Luray II National High School, which reduces the generalizability of the results. Involved as subjects and respondents of the study were 47 first year high school students enrolled in the Luray II National High School during the school year 2011-2012. Further research is needed to understand factors that may affect academic performance once their family is broken.

The subject matter under investigation was the profile of the students in terms of age, gender and academic performance. They study correlated the age and academic performance and also correlated the gender and academic performance.

The indicator that will be used for academic performance shall be the students’ first grading Grade Point  Average during the school year 2011 – 2012. In the profiling the respondents, the Student Profile from the guidance office was utilized.

CHAPTER II

THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

 Review of Literature and Related Studies

             This study is anchored on Field Theory and Family Stress Theory. Both theories provide psychological bases for both explanatory and exploratory understanding of the study.

For Kurt Lewin, behaviour was determined by totality of an individual’s situation, in his field theory, a ‘field’ is defined as the ‘totality of coexisting factors which are conceived of as mutually interdependent’ (Tognotti, 2008).

Subsequently, field theory deals with the problem of how people gain an understanding of themselves and their environments and how using their cognition, they act in relation to their environments (Beronio, 2003). There is basically a change of oneself if the environment changes. Thus, individuals participate in a series of life spaces such as the family, work, school and church, and these were constructed under the influence of various force vectors (Lewin, 1952; Tognotii, 2008).

Relatively, if we speak about environment family contribute greatly to the development of a person and if the family encounter crisis, problem occurs. And every family member is apparently affected.

Anderson (1994) stated that families are the bedrock of society. When families fall apart, society falls into social and cultural decline (Belle, 1980). If we fail to come to terms with the relationship between family structure and declining child well-being, then it will be increasingly difficult to improve children’s life prospects, no matter how many new programs the government will fund. Nor will we be able to make progress in bettering school performance or reducing crime or improving the quality of the nation’s future work force–all domestic problems closely connected to family breakup. Worse, we may contribute to the problem by pursuing policies that actually increase family instability and breakup (Dan Quayle, 1993).

For McDonald (2001), acute stressors (meaning sudden onset) which when accumulated could lead to family crises, including physical, emotional, or relational crises.   Examples of such family crises resulting from family stressors are episodes of domestic violence, substance abuse (relapses), illness from weakened immune systems, divorce, accidents, children being abused, or neglected, etc.

This is what the Family Stress Theory emphasized, it explores why some family systems adapt and even grow and thrive when faced with situational stressors or transitional events, while other family units deteriorate and disintegrate under similar circumstances (McCubbin, 1993).

If a family experiences multiple stressors, Attneave (1986) pointed out that they are socially isolated and emotionally disconnected to one another, they are depressed, hopeless, and disempowered, then they will be at increased risk for illness, accidents, child abuse and neglect, and substance abuse, delinquency and school failure.

Karl Zinsmeister (1991), asserts that there is a mountain of scientific evidence showing that when families disintegrate, children often end up with intellectual, physical and emotional scars that persist for life i.e. the drug crisis, the education crisis, and the problem of teen pregnancy and juvenile crime. But all these ills trace back predominantly to one source: broken families.

A broken family in this context is one that is not structurally intact for various reasons; death of a parent, divorce, separation, dissertation and illegitimacy in which case, the family was never completed (Conkline, 1996). This analysis becomes necessary because life in a single parent family can be stressful for both the child and the parent. Such families are faced with the challenges of diminished financial resources (Children’s Defence Fund 1994), assumptions of new roles and responsibilities, establishment of new patterns in intra-familial interaction and reorganization of routines and schedules (Agulanna, 1999).

When the single parent is overburdened by responsibilities and by their own emotional reaction to their situation, they often become irritable, impatient and insensitive to their children’s needs (Nzewunwah, 1995).

As seen, children from broken home household are disadvantaged. Some of them do not go to school; those who do may attend low quality schools, with low academic performance. Some of them may drop out of school prematurely, Children from broken home academic performance are often adversely affected, and the stresses of inadequate financial resources have adverse effect on the children in broken home/household (Dowd, 1997; p. 59).

Messiah (1983) said that some parents from broken homes are usually found in low status jobs. This may be because they did not have enough school preparations to equip them for high caliber jobs with which to use in supporting their families.

Basically, the family lays the psychosocial, moral and spiritual foundations in the overall development of the child (Agulanna, 1999). Parents and the individual’s experiences at home play tremendous roles in building the personality of the child and making the child what he is (Ajila and Olutola, 2007).

Hence, Ichado (1998) revealed that the state of the home affects the individual since the parents are the first socializing family background and context of a child affect his reaction to life situations and his level of performance. Henceforth, the environment in which the student comes from can greatly influence his performance at school.

Further, the home environment or family has been recognized as having a lot of influence on the academic performance of students (Nzewuawah 1995). And over the years, the investigations of the factors that influence academic performance of students have attracted the interest and concern of teachers, counselors, psychologists, researchers and school administrators (Wiseman 1973; Sogbetun 1981).

In educational institutions, success is measured by academic performance, or how well a student meets standards set out by local government and the institution itself (Bell, 2007).

As accounted by Ichado (1998), parent’s constant disagreement affects children emotionally and this could lead to poor academic performance in school. Seemingly, the school can only supplement the values and learning at home. Although the school takes care of the academic development but it is still within the sphere of the home environment and family dynamics where children can learn the basic knowledge and skills to live with life effectively (Espinosa, 2007).

Kellaghan and his collegues (1993) conclude, for example, that family social status or cultural background need not determine a child’s achievement at school. They propose that for academic success, it is what parents do in the home, and not children’s family background, that is significant.

Analyses of the relations between families and academic achievement also need to consider children’s family structures, such as the influence of single-parent families and the effect of sibling structures. It is generally acknowledged that family environment is the most powerful influence in determining a child’s academic motivation and achievement (Corbis, 1998).

Research that has examined relationships between changing family structures and students’ school-related outcomes, has tended to show that in relation to two-parent framilies, children in single-parent families have lower academic performance, are more susceptible to peer pressure to engage in deviant behavior, have higher dropout rates from high school, and have greater social and psychological problems (<a href=”http://family.jrank.org/pages/11/

Academic-Achievement-Family-Background-Family-Structure.html”>Academic Achievement – Family Background And Family Structure</a>, Retrieved on Aug. 4, 2011).

Ceci, et.al, (1997) propose that the efficacy of a family influence for academic success is determined to a large degree by a child’s family background. Parent-child interactions are the forces that lead to academic performance.

Moreover, Sam Redding (1999) indicates that in relation to academic outcomes, the potential limitations associated with poor economic circumstances can be overcome by parents who provide stimulating, supportive, and language-rich experiences for their children.

The most current information on improving academic performance tells us that there are three environmental influences linked to level of academic performance among young children (NICHD, 2004). These influences include the following: high quality parenting, high quality child-care environments, high quality classrooms (Demmert, 2004).

Indeed, broken homes may influence the academic performance of the student. Since, nowadays youth are more susceptible to be swayed by their peers if not properly guided by their parents.

Definition of Terms

                       The following terms are operationally defined to give clear understanding of the research.

Academic Performance – refers to the willingness of the student to study in his/her different subjects in the class.

Academic Problems – refers to the low, failing, or drop-out grades of the student.

Broken Family – this term refers to a family that is not structurally intact for various reasons; death of a parent, divorce, separation, dissertation and illegitimacy in which case, the family was never completed (Conkline, 1996).

High School Student – pertains to a person who studies under the secondary level in a public school.

Parents – refers to the biological father and mother of the student.

Poor Academic Performance – refers to the lack of willingness of the student to study in his/her different subjects in the class.

 

CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

             This chapter outlines the research design and methodology that were used to explain and describe the academic performance of students from broken homes.

Research Design

            This study utilized a quantitative approach of data analysis and presentation. This assisted the researcher to come up a fact-finding study with adequate and accurate interpretation. It utilized a descriptive method to find out the academic performance of the high school students from broken homes.

Research Environment

The research was conducted at Luray II National High School, Luray II, Toledo City. The school envisions to produce quality graduates who are competent, innovative, God – loving and responsible citizens. Its mission is to produce students with quality basic education for life-long learning to meet the challenges of this fast changing society through the dedication of efficient and effective teacher with the participation of stakeholders and the inculcation of the love of God.

The school was established in order to give an opportunity to those who are working and/or married individual who wanted to study in high school. The school only offers night session but later it accepts students for the day session. The teachers thereon borrow classrooms from the North City Central School. As the years passed by, the school has separate buildings from the North City Central School with the effort of the government officials.

The school is situated along D. M. Macapagal Highway and Poloyapoy Street of Barangay Luray II, Toledo City. The neighboring barangays are Luray I and Sangi. It has a total land area of approximately 11, 100 square meters. The usual means of transportation thereon are tricycle and “trisikad”. It only takes a 5 minute-ride from the school to the city proper.

Research Respondents

The researcher got a copy of the official master lists of students from records in-charge. Then, the researcher identified who among the high school students are from broken homes as reflected in their student profile from the guidance office. From there, the researcher determined the number of respondents using convenience and purposive sampling. A total of 47 first year high school students were involved in this study.

Research Instruments

The researcher utilized the students profile in profiling the respondents in terms of age and gender. For the academic performance of the respondents the first grading grade point average was used.

 Research Procedure

Preparation phase. The researcher sent a letter request to the School Principal of Luray II National High School (Day) asking the latter’s permission and approval to allow the research study to be conducted in the aforestated school.

Administration phase. The researcher administered the research instrument to the selected first year high school students and asked the advisers of the grade of the respondents.

Treatment of Data. The data that were gathered by the researcher were properly tabulated, calculated and interpreted, using appropriate statistical treatment.

The researcher used the following statistical treatment to have an appropriate empirical basis and interpretation of data.

To answer the problem number 1, Simple Percentage Formula was utilized to compute the percentage of the profile of the respondents in terms of gender and age. To test the significance between gender and academic performance as well as age and academic performance, Coefficient of Contingency (Using Chi-Square) was used.

The formula were as follows:

Simple Percentage Formula

P = f / n x 100

Where:           P = Percentage

f = frequency

n = number of respondents

100 = constant variable in computing percentage

Coefficient of Contingency (Using Chi-Square)

C = 14x2N+ x2″>      

Where: 14×2=chi-square”>

                 N = number of respondents

To test the significance of C with t – test:

t = “C” 14N-21 -“C””>      

Where:  “C” 14=corrected c”>

                 N = number of respondents

To answer the problem number 2, Weighted Arithmetic Mean Formula was utilized, in order to determine the level of academic performance of the respondents.  The formula is as follow:

            Xw = 14fwN”>

Where: ∑ = summation

                  f = grade

                  w = weight/units

                  N = no. of respondents

To answer the problem number 3, The Chi-Square Test of Divergence was utilized to determine the academic performance of high school students from broken homes is not divergent from the normal curve of distribution. The formula is as follow:

X2 = ∑(fo – fe)2

————–

fe

Where:

∑   = summation

fo  = observed frequency

fe  =  expected frequency

   CHAPTER IV

PRESENTATION, INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

 This chapter presents, interprets, and analyzes the findings of the study using the data accumulated by the researcher. The entire data are taken from the standardized questionnaire. Further, the data collected are shown in this chapter in statistical presentation utilizing the formula mentioned in the previous chapter.

TABLE 1

Age Profile of the Respondents

N = 47

AGE FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE (%)
12 – 13 27 57.45
14 – 15 14 29.75
16 – 17 6 12.77
TOTAL 47 100

 

Table 1 shows the age profile of the respondents. Age 12-13 has the highest percentage of respondents with 57.45% (27). It is followed by age 14-15 with 29.79% (14).There are only two (6) 16-17 years old respondents with 12.77%.

As seen in the table, majority of the respondents having normal ages for first year high school such as ages 12, 13, and 14, are the ones who belonged from broken homes. As to the ages 15 to 17 which are consider over ages for first year high school, the table shows that their percentage are less compare to the normal ages for first year. It only implies that students at these ages who belonged from broken homes are significantly affected of their situation. Thus, they unlikely want to enroll to study in high school.

TABLE 2

Variable Relationship Analysis

N= 47

VARIABLE Chi-Square t-test Decision
Computed value Tabled value Computed value Tabled value
AGE AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCEat .05 level of significance, df = 45  14.57 9.488

 

6.24 1.98 Reject Ho.

 

            Table 2 shows the variable relationship analysis between age and academic performance. It shows that the computed value of t-test (6.24) is greater that the tabled value (1.98) at .05 level of significance, this entails that there is a significant correlation between age and academic performance. Students having normal school age for first year better perform in their academic classes compare with students who are over age.

TABLE 3

Gender Profile of the Respondents

N = 47

GENDER FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE (%)
Male 22 46.81
Female 25 53.19
TOTAL 47 100

 

Table 2 shows the respondents gender profile. As indicated above, majority of the respondents are female with a percentage of 53.19 (25) whereas male has only 46.81% (22). It only implies that female students are more persistent than males to enroll in order study in high school despite of their situation having belong from broken homes.

 

TABLE 2

Variable Relationship Analysis

N= 47

VARIABLE Chi-Square t-test Decision
Computed value Tabled value Computed value Tabled value
GENDER AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCEat .05 level of significance, df = 45 35.13 5.991 14.72 1.98 Reject Ho.

            This table shows the variable relationship analysis between gender and academic performance. It revealed that the computed value of t-test (14.72) is greater the tabled value (1.98) having .05 level of significance. This simply means that there is a significant correlation between gender and academic performance. Female students perform well in their academic classes compare with male students who came from broken homes. Male students are more affected by their situation rather than female students.

 

TABLE 5

LEVEL OF ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF THE HIGH SCHOOL

STUDENTS COMING FROM BROKEN HOMES

N = 47

Academic Performance Frequency Percentage
Above Average 0 0
Average 18 38.30
Below Average 29 61.70
Total 47 100.00

 

Table 5 shows the level of academic performance of the respondents. Out of 47 of them, there are 29 respondents who obtained below average level in their academic performance, having a grade weighted average of 80.00 and below. This significant result indicates that 61.70% of the respondents are performing low in their academic classes. It only implies that their studies are affected for some reasons because they belonged from broken homes.

On the other hand, there are 18 respondents who reached an average level in their academic performance with a grade weighted average of 80.00 – 89.00. This result marks 38.30% of the total number of respondents. This percentage only describes that there are substantial number of respondents who are still performing well in their academic subjects despite that they belonged from broken homes.

TABLE 6

CHI – SQUARE TEST OF DIVERGENCE

N = 47

COMPUTED VALUE TABLED VALUE DECISION
X2 = 68.58 5.991 Reject Ho

 

            This table shows the chi-square test of divergence of the respondents’ academic performance. The same illustrates that the chi-square computed value which is 68.58 is greater than the chi-square tabled value which is 5.991 having .05 level of significance. This result indicates that there is a significant divergence in their academic performance from the normal curve for the first year high school students who belonged from broken homes.

CHAPTER V

SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

 This chapter presents the summary, findings, conclusions and recommendations of the study.

SUMMARY

The study explored and determined the academic performance of high school students coming from broken homes. The findings of this study would be drawn to serve as basis to formulate a student intervention program for the high school students.

The study involved the 47 first year high school students who came from broken homes. This is a quantitative study using descriptive method of research. In statistics, the researcher used the Percentage Formula to treat the demographic profile of the respondents, Coefficient of Contingency using Chi-Square, Weighted Arithmetic Mean formula was utilized for the level academic performance of the respondents and Chi-Square Test of Divergence was used to determine the academic performance of the high school students from broken homes is not divergent from the normal curve of distribution.

The data gathered were tabulated and statistically treated to answer the problems. Interpretation and analysis of the findings were presented in tabulated form.

FINDINGS

The following were the findings of the study:

  1. Demographic Profile of the respondents
  2. Age 13 has the highest percentage of respondents with 40.43% (19).It is followed by age 14 with 21.28% (10). Ages 12, 15, and 16, are only few with a percentage of 14.89 (7), 10.64 (5), and 8.51 (4) respectively. There are only two (2) 17 years old respondents with 4.26%. There is a significant correlation between age and academic performance since the computed value of t-test (6.24) is greater that the tabled value (1.98) at .05 level of significance. Students having normal school age for first year better perform in their academic classes compare with students who are over age.

 

  1. Majority of the respondents are female with a percentage of 53.19 (25) whereas male has only 46.81% (22). It revealed that the computed value of t-test (14.72) is greater the tabled value (1.98) having .05 level of significance. This simply means that there is a significant correlation between gender and academic performance. Female students perform well in their academic classes compare with male students who came from broken homes. Male students are more affected by their situation rather than female students.

 

  1. Level of Academic Performance of the respondents

61.70%(29) of the respondents obtained below average level in their academic performance, having a grade weighted average of 80.00 and below. 38.30% (18) of the respondent reached an average level in their academic performance with a grade weighted average of 81.00 – 90.00.

  1. Significant divergence from the normal curve of high school students’ academic performance coming from broken homes.

The chi-square computed value which is 68.58 is greater than the chi-square tabled value which is 5.991 having .05 level of significance. There is a significant divergence in their academic performance from the normal curve of distribution and the first year high school students who belonged from broken homes.

 

CONCLUSIONS

 There is a substantial evidence to show that age has a bearing on the academic performance of the first year students coming from broken homes. Students having normal school age for first year better perform in their academic classes compare with students who are over age. One researcher found a moderate positive relationship between age and performance (Waldman, 1986)

There is high evidence to show that gender has a bearing one’s academic performance. In this study, female students perform well in their academic classes compare with male students who came from broken homes. Lao (1980) finds female students to obtain higher CGPA compared to males, and other researchers have asserted that women receive higher grades than men because they work harder and attend class more frequently (Wainer and Steinberg, 1992).

The respondents are performing low in their academic classes. Their studies are affected because they belonged from broken homes. According to Ceci, et.al (1997) academic performance is determined to a large degree by a child’s family background since parent-child interactions are the forces that lead to academic performance.

            The distribution presents skewness to the right of the normal curve of distribution. The academic performance of first year high school students who came from broken homes is below average. Their mental condition is affected by their situation since they lack parental support and the home environment or family has been recognized as having a lot of influence on the academic performance of students (Nzewuawah, 1995).

 

RECOMMENDATIONS

Based on the conclusions of this study, some useful recommendations are suggested.

Students coming from broken homes should be provided with a series of therapy that could help them to cope up with their situation and become a well-adjusted individual. Further, the teachers should as well be exposed to trainings and seminar-workshops to be effective teachers handling diverse students. Also, the guidance counselors in schools should designed a program intended to students who came from broken homes to enhance their academic performance and achieved maximum potential.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

  1. BOOKS

Aquino, G. and Alviar, C. (1980). Principles of Guidance and Counseling. A

Modern Approach. National Bookstore Inc.

Bell, J., Thacker, T., & Schargel, F. (2007). From At-Risk to Academic

  1. New York: Eye On Education Publishing Corporation.

Evangelista, Lourdes, L. (1999). Exceptional Psychology (With Questions and Answers). Booklore Publishing Corporation.

Franzoi, Stephen. (2003). Social Psychology; 3rd Ed. New York; Mc Graw – Hill Holland, P.C. (1969). Human Development. McGraw Hill, Inc.

Lewin, K. (1997). Resolving Social Conflicts; Field theory in Social Science. New York: American Psychological Association.

Santrock, John W. (1997). Life-Span Development. Times Mirror Higher Education Group Inc.

 

  1. UNPUBLISHED MATERIAL

Beronio, D. (2003). Campus Environment, “Adjustment Problem, and Academic Performance: Student Intervention Program”.

  1. INTERNET SOURCES

Kizlik, R. (2002). Electronic journals: Education Information for Teachers. Retrieved on March 20, 2011, from http://www.odprima.com/managing.htm

McDaniel, M. (29 August 2009). Electronic journals: Factors Affecting Academic Peformance. Retrieved on March 20, 2011, from http://www.brighthub.com/education/articles/13907.aspx

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How to Make a Research Title (Sample)

Issue:

Majority of those retained, failing, and/or drop-out students in high school came from a broken or disoriented family.

Questions:

a) Does coming from a broken or disoriented family can affect the academic performance among majority of students in high school who are from within?

b) What are the factors why majority of high school students begin to encounter academic problems once their family are broken or disoriented?

c) What are the reasons why majority of students coming from a broken or disoriented family have poor academic performance if not having a failing remarks in their respective academic subjects?

Title: 

Relationship of Broken or Disoriented Family towards

Academic Performance of the High School

Students of Luray II National

High School

Rationale of the Study:

Family disorientation is largely experience by most students not only in poverty line families but same goes to middle to higher class families. Parents choose to live separately regardless how their children feels, while some, though they live together but in a very inharmonious way. However, there are parents in spite of the situation still supports and care of their children in their studies and others, who are worst, abandon their children. This now become the growing problem that the country is facing and most importantly the school since many students are affected which will eventually affects their academic performance.

It is worthy to note that majority of high school students in the country who got poor or failing grades in their academic subjects came from a broken or disoriented family. Some of them as we saw were not just having poor academic performance but instead they let themselves be retained at their year level after dropping-out their respective subjects. It is timely to identify or to determine what are the major reasons why students in high school who came from a broken or disoriented family are greatly affected in their academic classes. In addition also, it is important to note the causes why majority of high school students begin to encounter academic problems once their family are broken or disoriented.

To find out the answers of these queries, the researcher aims to study the “Relationship of Broken or Disoriented Family towards Academic Performance of the High School Students of Luray II National High School”.

 Significance of the Study:

This study would be beneficial to the administrators of Luray II National High School since they can pick up possible remedies to address the growing numbers of students in the country belonging to a broken or disoriented family who thereby experienced academic problems or poor academic performance, if not failed or drop-out.

The teachers of Luray II National High School would gain insights to the underlying cause of the students’ academic problems and how they can be of help to the students to cope their life and academic difficulties.

The parents shall be benefited of the output of the study for they can understand the importance of their respective role as a parent and this shall help them realize to value their family and give more quality time to their children.

The output of the study would be beneficial for the readers and future researchers for them to know the significant relationship of broken or disoriented family towards academic performance of the students so that they will be interested to investigate further the reasons of poor academic performance.

Statement of the Problem:

This research study aims to determine the relationship of broken or disoriented family towards academic performance of the high school students of Luray II National High School.

Definition of Terms:

                   The following terms are operationally defined to give clear understanding of the research.

Independent Variables

Broken or Disoriented Family – this term refers to a family whose parents were separated

Parents – refers to the father and mother of the student.

Dependent Variable

Academic Performance – refers to the willingness of the student to study in his/her different subjects in the class.

Academic Problems – refers to the low, failing, or drop-out grades of the student.

Poor Academic Performance – refers to the lack of willingness of the student to study in his/her different subjects in the class.

Latent Variable

Poverty line families –

Middle class families –

Higher class families –

Posted on

Guidance and Counseling Strategies Among the High School Teachers of Luray II National High School Towards Student’s Behavioral and Academic Problems

CHAPTER 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE

Rationale

Every school in the country, it cannot be gainsaid that its school personnel and teachers have encountered several problems in their respective classes. These problems include absenteeism, cutting classes, tardiness, poor motivation and low academic performance among its students. These facts have become the perennial issues that bother in every school institutions because the number of students who experienced these problems in every school, as attested by research studies, are increasing. Thus, if these are not properly resolved, it will greatly affect the academic performance among the students.

Hence, it is vital that every school personnel and teachers must employ guidance and counseling strategies to effectively manage its students. But there are still school personnel and teachers having difficulty in controlling their respective students. They lack the skill to address properly the concerns and issues with respect their students. They just leave these matters to the Guidance Counselor of their school because they believed that these issues and concerns are part of their job aside from confronting with other different cases and problems of every student in the whole school.

Verily, each student has different problems whether in school or at home or both. And the way they handles the same differs individually. Some able to deal with the problems positively but some are not. The negative behavior of the student will become a problem to the teachers as a result. That is why it is imperative that teachers should have good attitude toward their students and must possess the ability of being strategic and decisive in helping their students on the period of their stay in school. Teachers must have desirable attitudes.

At the outset, this study aims to identify the guidance and counseling strategies employed by the high school teachers of Luray II National High School with their student’s behavioral and academic concerns.

 Theoretical Background

This study is anchored on the concept that guidance and counseling strategies employed by the high school teachers had an impact towards the student’s behavioral and academic problems.

Teacher will inevitably face numerous behavior problems during their career as a teacher and learning new ways to handle these problems tactfully and effectively will make the classroom a more pleasant place for both teacher and the students (Gysbers, 2001). In fact, problem behavior in the classroom is one of the most difficult aspect of a teachers job (Corey, 2010), because it interrupts their lesson plans, tries their patience, interferes with the other children’s learning environment and leaves many teachers feeling overwhelmed, helpless and out of control (Smith & Gouze, 2004).

Fred Jones, researcher and author of the popular book Tools for Teaching, found that 50% of class time is lost due to misbehavior, and that approximately 99% of those typical classroom disruptions results from students talking without permission, daydreaming, making noise or wandering around the room (Thomas, 1996).

Lee et al. (1999) revealed that students’ problem behaviors can be a source of great frustration and confusion to teachers, especially when they are persistent and appear to be inexplicable.

According to Smith (2004), teachers must exercise proper discipline at all times. What the students see is oftentimes what they will do as well. And for secondary schools, teachers should try to prevent problems in a classroom by being organized and using techniques to keep students occupied (Derouin, 2005).

Thus, effective teaching and guidance and counseling strategies requires considerable skill in managing the myriad of tasks and situations that occur in the classroom each day (Kizlik, 2002). Also, Wistrom (2010) assert, effective guidance and counseling strategies is a powerful tool a teacher has at his or her disposal.

For McDaniels (2009), creating a positive learning environment will optimize student learning, help teacher build cohesive classroom community and create a pleasant work environment for both teachers and students

In addition, when teachers understand the behavioral hot spots in their classroom in terms of timing, setting, and instructional activities, for example, they can proactively develop class wide and individual student strategies (such as a change in instructional groupings, the seating plan or the order of pace of reading and math instructions) to reduce the contribution of these classroom factors to students’ problem behaviors (Bryk and Schneider, 2002).

Meanwhile, fostering students’ social and emotional development can improve their interactions and attitudes toward school, thereby reducing problem behaviors (Zins et al., 2004).

Thus, understanding what prompts and reinforces problem behaviors can be a powerful tool for preventing them or reducing their negative impacts when they occur (Greenberg et al., 2003).

Reiss (2005) disclosed, when teachers use positive reinforces such as praise, rewards and privileges and communicate a positive attitude to their students, they lay the foundation for students to try hard and reach new goals.

Indeed, relationships have been found between positive interactions with teachers and increase in students’ social skills, emotional regulation, motivation, engagement, cooperation with classroom rules and expectations and academic performance (Solomon et al., 2002).

Moreover, peer tutoring has been demonstrated to be effective in promoting appropriate behavior as well as academic gains (Heller & Fantuzzo, 1993).

Stevens & Slavin (1995), have found that family involvement in a students’ education can yield numerous positive outcomes, including improved student achievement and behavior.

Relatively, by engaging family members, teachers can better understand their student’s behavior issues and develop allies in intervening both at school and at home to help students succeed (Hamre and Pianta, 2005).

Conversely, students may become disruptive in the classroom for many different reasons. They may have problems at home, react negatively to subjects that are too difficult, misunderstand directions for assignments or simply be bored, evading class work, or seeking teacher or peer attention (Corey, 2010).

DeSpirt (2006), affirms that most if not all behavior students wish to be noticed and if they get attention from misbehaving they are willing to walk the path with consequences.

Another is, students’ behavior may be temporary reaction to a difficult event, such as the death or illness of a family member (Hall, 2002).

As accounted by Patsalides (2010), in the real world, students come from all walks of life. They all have problems, and some do not deal well with stress or conflict.

  THE PROBLEM

Statement of the Problem

 

This study aimed to determine the guidance and counseling strategies employed by the high school teachers of Luray II National High School with their student’s behavioral and academic concerns.

Specifically, this research sought to answer the following sub-problems:

  1. What are the existing guidance and counseling issues inside the classroom?
  2. What are the strategies employed in addressing these issues and problems inside the classroom?
  3. What are the impacts of the strategies employed in addressing the issues and problems inside the classroom?
  1. Based on the findings of the study, what possible intervention program that could be sought?

 

Significance of the Study

This study significantly yields valid information regarding the existing guidance and counseling issues inside the classroom and to identify the different guidance and counseling strategies by the high school teachers of Luray II National High School so that the school will learn how its teachers addressed the different classroom issues.

The Luray II National High School would benefit to the output of this study because its teachers will learn the different guidance and counseling issues happening inside the respective classroom; and on how the teachers addressed these issues so that the school in cooperation with the Guidance Counselor’s Office would be able to device an effective method of guidance and counseling strategies. In this way, it could lessen the burden among the school teachers thus continuing to teach their students effectively.

The output of this study can help the teachers of Luray II National High School since they will be aware consequently of their guidance and counseling strategies and its impact in addressing the guidance and counseling issues inside their respective classrooms. They will learn to be mindful of themselves and would better understand their students.

The readers and future researchers would eventually gain insight based on the findings of the study on the guidance and counseling issues and concerns inside the classroom and how the teachers address these concerns and issues.

 

Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study primarily focuses on the existing guidance and counseling issues and strategies implemented by the high school teachers of Luray II National High School.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

 This study utilized the descriptive method of research. A researcher made questionnaires were used as instrument of data collection. Copies of the researcher made questionnaires were administered to the high school teachers of Luray II National High School.

Research Environment

Luray II National High School was established in the year 1996 through the effort of the late Brgy. Captain of Luray II Cresencio Valmores, with the assistance of Mr. Alfredo Tan, former Division Supervisor in Non-Formal Educacation, in order to give an opportunity to those who are working and married but wanted to study high school. That same year, it only offers night session but later it accepts students for day session. They only borrow classrooms from the North City Central School. As the years passed by, the school were able to construct buildings separate from the North City Central School.

The school is situated along D. M. Macapagal Highway and Poloyapoy Street of Barangay Luray II, Toledo City. The neighboring barangays are Luray I and Sangi. It has a total land area of approximately 11, 100 sq. m. The usual means of transportation therein are tricycle and trisikad. It only takes 5 minute-ride from the school to the city proper.

The researcher conducts its study in the Luray II National High School.

 Research Respondents

            The six high school teacher of the Luray II National High School occupying national items are the respondents of the study. They are two males and four females. The researcher utilized random sampling method in determining the respondents of this study.

Research Instrument

The researcher utilized researcher made questionnaires in gathering the needed data. The said questionnaires have three parts: the first is to identify the existing guidance and counseling issues and problems encountered inside the classroom; the second is to determine the strategies employed in addressing these issues and problems; the third is to discern whether the strategies employed are effective or not.

Research Procedure

Preparation phase. The researcher sent transmittal letter to the Principal of Luray II National High School asking permission to allow the research instruments be administered according to a designated time and venue.

Administration phase. The researcher administered the research instruments to the high school teachers of Luray II National High School according to the given time and designated venue.

Retrieval phase. The researcher personally retrieved the standardized instruments after the respondents fill-out each item found on the said instrument.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

The following terms are operationally defined to give a vivid understanding of the research.

Absenteeism – this term refers to the absences incurred for several days by the student and failure of the student to attend classes regularly.

Habitual Tardiness – this term refers to the successive late in coming to class incurred by the student.

Habitual Cutting Classes – this term refers to the successive/consecutive skipping of classes exhibited by the student during a period of time.

Habitual Misconduct – this term refers to the consistent disobedience of the student towards the teacher/s, frequent talking and roaming around the classroom inside the class even the teacher is discussing.

Poor Motivation – this term refers to the inattentiveness of the student towards school works and school events and is not interested to participate or engage any class activities or tasks.

Low Academic Performance – this term refers to student’s performance towards studying, school activities, and getting good grades.

Guidance and Counseling Strategies – this term refers to the different techniques and methods used in responding to the students concerns, issues and problems.

Student – this word refers to the individual who goes to school to study for a particular course of study.

Teacher – this word refers to the profession of an individual who teaches and employed in a school.

ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY

 This study consists of three chapters, namely:

Chapter 1, this covers the rationale, theoretical background, the problem, , significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, methodology, research environment, research respondents, research instrument, research procedure, definition of terms, and organization of the study.

Chapters 2, this part presents, analyze, and interpret the data that gathered in the undertaking.

Chapter 3 shows the findings, conclusions, and recommendation of the research.

CHAPTER II

 

PRESENTATION, INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

This chapter presents, interprets, and analyzes the findings of the study using the data accumulated by the researcher. The entire data are taken from the researcher made questionnaires.

Figure 1. Guidance and Counseling Issues

This figure shows the existing guidance and counseling issues in the classroom encountered by the high school teacher of the Luray II National High School.

It reveals that the majority of the respondents have students who incurred absenteeism (43%), habitual misconduct (22%) and habitual tardiness (14%). Few of them have students who incurred habitual cutting classes, poor motivation and low academic performance with 7%.

This implies that the respondents experienced several problems in class and were very strategic in addressing those issues. Also, they manage to facilitate the different concerns and problems of their students despite of their many tasks and responsibilities as a teacher.

Table 1. Guidance and  Counseling Strategies

Issues Strategies
Absenteeism
  • Interview the student to know the reason.
  • Advise the student to minimize absences.
  • Discuss with the student the effect on his/her grades.
  • Send a letter to the parents or guidance requesting them to come to school for an importance matter so that the parents may know the performance made by their son/daughter.
  • Conduct heart to heart talk to dig deeper the problems why they had done such acts and designed topics to be reported for them to gain self-confidence.
  • Give exams before discussion.
  • Call their parents for a conference with the guidance counselor.
  • Required them to submit an excuse letter signed by their parents or guardian.
  • Home visitation.
Habitual Tardiness
  • Check attendance earlier so she/he will strive to com earlier rather than marked absent.
  • Call the attention of the concerned student privately and ask the reason/cause of his/her tardiness.
Habitual Misconduct
  • Talk to the student privately.
  • Send to the Guidance and Counseling Office
Habitual Cutting Classes
  • Let them do the reporting for certain matter or topics and conducted heart to heart talk for every students in order to know the reasons.
  • Dialogue with parents.
  • Refer to the Guidance and Counseling Office.
  • Call up the attention of the student, conduct interrogations, and inform the guidance office for his/her habitual cutting classes, warnings should be given as well.
Poor Motivation
  • Find alternative ways to catch the attention of the student, greater visual aids and bombastic lectures will help drive to motivate.
  • Dialogue with parents.
  • Extrinsic motivation.
Low Academic Performances
  • Peer tutoring
  • Do adopt a classmate
  • Dialogue with parents.
  • Extrinsic motivation.

 

This table shows the guidance and counseling strategies used among the high school teachers of Luray II National High School in addressing the guidance and counseling issues in the classroom.

It reveals that the guidance and counseling strategies they applied for absenteeism are as follows: interview the student to know the reason, advise the student to minimize absences, discuss with the student the effect on his/her grades, send a letter to the parents or guidance requesting them to come to school for an importance matter so that the parents may know the performance made by their son/daughter, conduct heart to heart talk to dig deeper the problems why they had done such acts and designed topics to be reported for them to gain self-confidence, give exams before discussion, call their parents for a conference with the guidance counselor, required them to submit an excuse letter signed by their parents or guardian and home visitation. This means that the respondents able to find ways and means to help their students attend their classes regularly and improved their class attendance to really pass their subjects and promoted to the next level.

For the issue on habitual tardiness the respondents utilized the following strategies; check attendance earlier so she/he will strive to come earlier rather than marked absent, call the attention of the concerned student privately and ask the reason/cause of his/her tardiness. The respondents tried their best to address this kind of guidance and counseling issues and made an extra effort to let their students realize the importance of coming early to school.

Additionally, the respondents have problems on habitual misconduct and they employ the following strategies: talk to the student privately and send to the Guidance and Counseling Office. This problem is very common to every class and the teachers have hard time dealing to students who were nuisance in the class so they usually refer it the Guidance and Counseling Office if it’s beyond their capability.

Also, issue on habitual cutting classes were manage by the respondents by using the following guidance and counseling strategies: let them do the reporting for certain matter or topics and conducted heart to heart talk for every students in order to know the reasons, dialogue with parents, refer to the Guidance and Counseling Office, call up the attention of the student, conduct interrogations, and inform the guidance office for his/her habitual cutting classes, warnings should be given as well. Respondents were quite ready for this kind of problem for they easily resolve this issue to their respective classes and cutting classes rate started to low.

Respondents utilized the following guidance and counseling strategies to address the issues on poor motivation: find alternative ways to catch the attention of the student, greater visual aids and bombastic lectures will help drive to motivate, dialogue with parents, extrinsic motivation. It illustrates that the respondents were very responsible in encouraging their students and determined to reach out to them when need arises.

The respondent guidance and counseling strategies toward low academic performance are the following: peer tutoring, do adopt a classmate, dialogue with parents, extrinsic motivation. This reflects that the respondents were doing their best to let their student’s pass the get higher marks during examination and especially help them to get good grades.

Table 2. Effectiveness of the strategies used

Issues Strategies Effectiveness
Absenteeism

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Interview the student to know the reason.
 Effective
  • Advise the student to minimize absences.
Ineffective
  • Discuss with the student the effect on his/her grades.
Ineffective
  • Send a letter to the parents or guidance requesting them to come to school for an importance matter so that the parents may know the performance made by their son/daughter.
Effective
  • Conduct heart to heart talk to dig deeper the problems why they had done such acts and designed topics to be reported for them to gain self-confidence.
Effective
  • Give exams before discussion.
Ineffective
  • Call their parents for a conference with the guidance counselor.
Effective
  • Required them to submit an excuse letter signed by their parents or guardian.
Effective
  • Home visitation.
Effective
Habitual Tardiness
  • Check attendance earlier so she/he will strive to come earlier rather than marked absent.
Ineffective
  • Call the attention of the concerned student privately and ask the reason/cause of his/her tardiness.
Effective
Habitual Misconduct
  • Talk to the student privately.
Effective
  • Send to the Guidance and Counseling Office
Effective
Habitual Cutting Classes

 

 

 

 

  • Let them do the reporting for certain matter or topics and conducted heart to heart talk for every students in order to know the reasons.
Effective
  • Dialogue with parents.
Effective
  • Refer to the Guidance and Counseling Office.
Effective
  • Call up the attention of the student, conduct interrogations, and inform the guidance office for his/her habitual cutting classes, warnings should be given as well.
Effective
Poor Motivation
  • Find alternative ways to catch the attention of the student, greater visual aids and bombastic lectures will help drive to motivate.
Effective
  • Dialogue with parents.
Ineffective
  • Extrinsic motivation.
Effective
Low Academic

Performances

  • Peer tutoring
Effective
  • Do adopt a classmate
Effective
  • Dialogue with parents.
Effective
  • Extrinsic motivation.
Effective

 

      This table describes the effectiveness of the guidance and counseling strategies used among the high school teachers of Luray II National High School in addressing the guidance and counseling issues.

It unveils that the following guidance and counseling strategies were effective: for absenteeism – interview the student to know the reason, send a letter to the parents or guidance requesting them to come to school for an importance matter so that the parents may know the performance made by their son/daughter, conduct heart to heart talk to dig deeper the problems why they had done such acts and designed topics to be reported for them to gain self-confidence, call their parents for a conference with the guidance counselor, required them to submit an excuse letter signed by their parents or guardian, and home visitation; for habitual tardiness –  call the attention of the concerned student privately and ask the reason/cause of his/her tardiness; for habitual misconduct – talk to the student privately and send to the Guidance and Counseling Office; for habitual cutting classes – let them do the reporting for certain matter or topics and conducted heart to heart talk for every students in order to know the reasons, dialogue with parents, refer to the Guidance and Counseling Office, call up the attention of the student, conduct interrogations, and inform the guidance office for his/her habitual cutting classes, warnings should be given as well; for poor motivation – find alternative ways to catch the attention of the student, greater visual aids and bombastic lectures will help drive to motivate, extrinsic motivation; for low academic performance – peer tutoring, do adopt a classmate, dialogue with parents and extrinsic motivation. This indicates that the guidance and counseling strategies of the respondents were helpful to the academic endeavors of the students and promotes student friendly environment.

Conversely, the table discloses that the following guidance and counseling strategies were ineffective: advice the student to minimize absences (absences), discuss with the student the effect on his/her grades (absences), give exams before discussion (absences), check attendance earlier so she/he will strive to come earlier rather than marked absent (habitual tardiness), dialogue with parents (poor motivation). This denotes that these strategies needs to be reexamined and modify to properly and effectively addressed the different guidance and counseling issues in the classroom.

 

CHAPTER III

 SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

 

SUMMARY

 The study aimed to determine the guidance and counseling strategies employed by the high school teachers of Luray II National High School with their student’s behavioral and academic concerns

Specifically, this research sought to answer the following sub-problems:

  1. What are the existing guidance and counseling issues inside the classroom?
  2. What are the strategies employed in addressing these issues and problems inside the classroom?
  3. What are the impacts of the strategies employed in addressing the issues and problems inside the classroom?
  1. Based on the findings of the study, what possible intervention program that could be sought?

Research Respondents

            The six high school teachers of the Luray II National High School occupying national items are the respondents of the study.

 Findings

The intention of this undertaking was to determine the existing guidance and counseling issues and concerns inside the classroom and to find out the guidance and counseling strategies employed by the high school teachers.

This study found out the following:

Guidance and Counseling Issues

Majority of the respondents have students who incurred absenteeism (43%), habitual misconduct (22%) and habitual tardiness (14%). Few of them have students who incurred habitual cutting classes, poor motivation and low academic performance with 7%.

 Guidance and Counseling Strategies

 The respondents guidance and counseling strategies they applied for absenteeism are as follows: interview the student to know the reason, advise the student to minimize absences, discuss with the student the effect on his/her grades, send a letter to the parents or guidance requesting them to come to school for an importance matter so that the parents may know the performance made by their son/daughter, conduct heart to heart talk to dig deeper the problems why they had done such acts and designed topics to be reported for them to gain self-confidence, give exams before discussion, call their parents for a conference with the guidance counselor, required them to submit an excuse letter signed by their parents or guardian and home visitation. For the issue on habitual tardiness the respondents utilized the following strategies; check attendance earlier so she/he will strive to come earlier rather than marked absent, call the attention of the concerned student privately and ask the reason/cause of his/her tardiness.

Additionally, the respondents have problems on habitual misconduct and they employ the following strategies: talk to the student privately and send to the Guidance and Counseling Office. Also, issue on habitual cutting classes were manage by the respondents by using the following guidance and counseling strategies: let them do the reporting for certain matter or topics and conducted heart to heart talk for every students in order to know the reasons, dialogue with parents, refer to the Guidance and Counseling Office, call up the attention of the student, conduct interrogations, and inform the guidance office for his/her habitual cutting classes, warnings should be given as well.

Respondents utilized the following guidance and counseling strategies to address the issues on poor motivation: find alternative ways to catch the attention of the student, greater visual aids and bombastic lectures will help drive to motivate, dialogue with parents, extrinsic motivation. The respondent guidance and counseling strategies toward low academic performance are the following: peer tutoring, do adopt a classmate, dialogue with parents, extrinsic motivation.

Effectiveness of Guidance and Counseling Strategies

The respondents guidance and counseling strategies that were effective are as follows: for absenteeism – interview the student to know the reason, send a letter to the parents or guidance requesting them to come to school for an importance matter so that the parents may know the performance made by their son/daughter, conduct heart to heart talk to dig deeper the problems why they had done such acts and designed topics to be reported for them to gain self-confidence, call their parents for a conference with the guidance counselor, required them to submit an excuse letter signed by their parents or guardian, and home visitation; for habitual tardiness –  call the attention of the concerned student privately and ask the reason/cause of his/her tardiness; for habitual misconduct – talk to the student privately and send to the Guidance and Counseling Office; for habitual cutting classes – let them do the reporting for certain matter or topics and conducted heart to heart talk for every students in order to know the reasons, dialogue with parents, refer to the Guidance and Counseling Office, call up the attention of the student, conduct interrogations, and inform the guidance office for his/her habitual cutting classes, warnings should be given as well; for poor motivation – find alternative ways to catch the attention of the student, greater visual aids and bombastic lectures will help drive to motivate, extrinsic motivation; for low academic performance – peer tutoring, do adopt a classmate, dialogue with parents and extrinsic motivation.

On the other hand, the table discloses that the following guidance and counseling strategies were ineffective: advice the student to minimize absences (absences), discuss with the student the effect on his/her grades (absences), give exams before discussion (absences), check attendance earlier so she/he will strive to come earlier rather than marked absent (habitual tardiness), dialogue with parents (poor motivation).

 Conclusion

Based on the foregoing premises, the guidance and counseling strategies employed by the high school teachers of Luray II National High School found to be effective addressing student’s behavioral and academic inside the classroom. In addition, the same brought back the interests and motivation of the students to study and performs well in school.

Recommendation

            The researcher would like to recommend to the Luray II National High School to design programs and policies based on this to develop a conducive learning atmosphere inside the classroom. This further recommends to the teachers of the said school the following guidance and counseling strategies.

Issues Recommended Guidance and Counseling Strategies
Poor Motivation
  • Encourage students to actively participate, take notes (explain that this is helpful to their learning as it stimulates memory in the brain) and in particularly long classes break up the session with activities or paired conversations about a topic to ensure that students stay engaged.
  • Students don’t learn much from listening, so remember that the more they “experience” the learning process the more you are really teaching.
Habitual Tardiness
  • There should be clear parameters set around this issue up front – either in the school policies or in the class decided norms. Stick to your guns on the policy. Some fair policies might include three tardiness equals one absence.
  • It might be best to discuss this with students individually; some are habitually late because they are still working and they are dependent to their boss/or the person they are working with.

 

Absenteeism Parents and family members play an important role in assisting the student to reintegrate back and remain engaged in school.  Teachers may wish to:

  • notify parents of their legal obligations and the importance of schooling and of continuity in learning from the early years
  • encourage the development of supportive networks with other parents
  • encourage parents to seek support from and communicate regularly with teachers and the school.

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

             Aguinaldo, M.M. (2003). Teachers as Counselor. Quezon City: MMA

Akin – Little, K., Eckert, T., Lovett, B., & Little, S. (2004). Extrinsic reinforcement in the classroom: Bribery or best practice. School Psychology Review.

             Bryk, A., & Schneider, B. (2002). Trust in schools: A core resource for improvement. New York: Russel Sage Foundation.

Christenson, S., & Sheridan, L. (2001). School and families: Creating essential connections for learning. New York: Guilford Press.

Greenberg, M., Weissberg, R., O’Brien, M., Zins, J., Fredericks, L., Resnik, H. & Elias, M. (2003). Enhancing school-based prevention and youth development through coordinated social, emotioanaly, and academic learning. American Psychologist, 58.

Heller, L., & Fantuzzo, J. (1993). Reciprocal peer tutoring and parent partnership: Does parent involvement make a difference? School Psychology Review, 22 (3).

Lee, Y., Sugai, G., Horner, R. (1999). Using an Instructional intervention to reduce problem and of-task behaviors. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 195 – 2004.

             Solomon, D., Watson, M., Battistich, v., Schaps, E., & Delucchi, K. (1992). Creating a caring community: Educational practices that promote children’s prosocial development. In F.K. Oser, A. Dick & J. Patry (Eds.), Effective and responsible teaching: The new synthesis. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Zins, J., Bloodwortt, M., Weisberg, R., & Wahlberg, H. (2004). The scientific base linking social and emotional learning to school success. In J. Zins, R. Weisberg, M. Wang, & H. Wahlberg (Eds.), Building academic success on social and emotional learning: What does the research say? (pp 3 – 22). New York: Teachers College Press.

Internet Sources

             Corey, S. (24 September 2010). Electronic magazine. Common Classroom Behavior Problems. Retrieved on March 20, 2011, from http://www.ehow.com/list/7225735common-classroom-behavior-problems.html

Kizlik, R. (2002). Electronic journals: Education Information for Teachers. Retrieved on March 20, 2011, from http://www.odprima.com/managing.htm

McDaniel, M. (29 August 2009). Electronic journals: Creating A Positive Learning Environment. Retrieved on March 20, 2011, from http://www.brighthub.com/education/articles/13907.aspx

Smith, J. (2004). Electronic magazine. The Proper Way of Approaching Classroom Behavior Issues. Retrieved on March 20, 2011, from http://www.EzineArticles.com/3820433.html

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Grade II Students Achievement Motivation Level

Rationale:

A student goes to school to earn knowledge and become successful in his studies. However, not all students became successful in fact a drastic number of students failed and become disinterested to continue studying. Thus, as they enter high school their motivation level should be measured in order to detect those students who are at-risk of dropping out so that their problems will be addressed immediately.

It is true that one’s person is motivated he is most likely to succeed with his endeavor. Measuring motivation is a gauge to the students’ willingness to study against academic excellence. According to Margolis (2009), to achieve excellence, students must be highly motivated to achieve. Unfortunately, many students with learning problems appear unmotivated and disinterested in learning. This can become the most difficult and vexing instructional problem that teachers and parents face.  Indeed, there is an important and separated place of motivation in training process since motivation in education effects the level of the learning of individual and as well as they reflect to their behaviours what they have learned or not. For Coskun (2011), the motivation of students represents the active participation of the students in learning process. The curiosity and interest of the students manifest itself with the connection to the subject learned, focus on the process of learning lesson and the joy of learning (Ertan, 2008). Inevitably, students who have not been motivated enough does not attend class regularly, does not listen to the lesson carefully, does not want to do homework and is irrelevant to the issues (Pintrich, 1996).

Hence, is the purpose of this research is to investigate the achievement motivation among grade VII secondary school students and the relationship between the achievement motivation and “gender”, “parent education level” and “family income level”.

THE PROBLEM

Statement of the Problem:

This research study expected to examine the achievement motivation level among Grade VII secondary school students.

Specifically, this research pursued to answer the following sub-problems:

1.) What is the profile of Luray II National High School students in terms of:

1.1. gender;

1.2. parent educational level; and

1.3. family income status?

Review of Literature and Related Studies

           This undertaking is anchored on the concept of the importance of the achievement motivation, an important concept in education.

The definition of “motive” and “motivation” were made by many researchers. The common side of this definition is motivation’s being the driving force “activating behaviour” (Coskun, 2011). Some of the definitions of motive and motivation as presented by Selcuk (2001) is as follows: motive is the power gives strength and direction to the behaviour; this power causes to act for a purpose by affecting organism. Motive describe by Okulda, (1993) is the driving force activating the organism, giving energy, causing a sensory uplift (enthusiasm,  desire)  and  directing  behaviour  to  achieve  some  specific  purposes  in  certain situations.   Motivation is a desire to succeed a goal which is meaningful to individual  (Cladella, et. al 2002). For Domyei (2001) motivation tries to explain the reason why people decide to do something, with which decision they go after their willingness, and how long they are willing.

High school students, in their adolescence stage, are exposed to some factors that may cause their learning to fluctuate. These include family problems, relationships with peers or with the opposite sex, addiction to computer-generated Role Playing Game and Internet, unlimited texting, etc. Because of these factors parents and teachers find problems in incrementing the motivation to learn of these students (Tan, 2007).

Motivation influences how and why people learn as well as how they perform (Pintrich & Schunk, 1996). Motivation was

found to be the best predictor of student achievement   in   the   two   studies   that investigated   factors   influencing   student achievement and effects of the factors on students’   achievement   in   learning   (Oxford, Park-Oh, Ito, & Sumrall, 1993a; 1993b).

In connection, Brophy (1998) describes motivation to learn as the students’ tendency to find academic activities meaningful and worthwhile and to try to get the intended learning benefits from them. Additionally, Stipek (1996) has a description on motivated students. These students have positive attitudes toward school and describe school as satisfying; they persist on difficult tasks and cause few management problems; and finally, they process information in depth and excel in classroom learning experiences.

Within the affective components, motivation is important because students’ motivation plays an important role in their conceptual change processes (Lee 1989, Lee and Brophy 1996, Pintrich et al. 1993), critical thinking, learning strategies (Garcia and Pintrich 1992, Kuyper et al. 2000, Wolters 1999).

Goc (2010) has stated the factors affecting students’ achievement motivation as: effectiveness of the teacher, friends, the individual’s attitude toward school, students’ perceptions about their own abilities, past experiences (positive or negative), the importance given to the student’s success, parents approaches towards their children and school by taking into account the researches done.

Additionally, research on motivational theories and studies of students’ learning (Brophy 1998, Pintrich and Schunk 1996) reveals that self-efficacy; the individual’s goals toward tasks, task value and the learning environment dominate students’ learning motivation.

Erb found out that high school student’s lack of motivation in learning were cause by: students’ lack of responsibility, students’ low self-esteem, students’ family dysfunction. Other researchers (Barlia and Beeth, 1999, Hynd et al. 2000, Lee, 1989 and Brophy, 1996) identified factors influencing student’s achievement motivation included: students’ own interests toward the subjects and the grades they received in class; students’ interpretation students’ interpretations of the nature of the task; students’ success or failure to make progress in academics; and students’ general goal and affective orientations in class and achievement of scientific understanding. Besides students’ own reasons, other factors influencing students’ motivation were teachers’ expectation of students’ learning, types of teachers’ feedback, and curriculum and social goals (Tuan, et al. 2005).

The important issue in achievement motive is the progress according to the student’s performance targets. The achievements of the students about the course are usually determined by the scores in examinations and the passing notes in class. Achievement motivation indicates using all his time and energy to achieve the standard objectives set before (Baykara, 1999).

Significance of the study

Administrators

This study will help the administrators know the kind of motivation students have in performing better in school. In that sense, the administrators can contribute helpful strategies for students’ academic growth.

Educators

This study will help educators design effective academic techniques that can develop the students’ achievement motivation. Since teachers facilitation skills contribute to the students’ motivation level.

 Students

 This study will help the students in their academic growth in such a way that they would be aware of the factors that motivate them both extrinsically and intrinsically to participate actively in school activities.

Parents

           The parents would gain insights on how to help their children be motivated in performing well in the academe and would be able to use properly reward system in an informational manner and not in controlling manner.

Research Methodology

The present study on the achievement motivation level among Grade VII secondary school students is center of analysis of this study. The researcher used the the  scale  was developed by Ellez  (2004)  in  order  to  determine  the  level of  the students’  achievement motivation. The scale consists of 23 items, and measures of the students’ achievement motive in the size of strive, participation, willingness to work and maintaining the working. The scale has five Likert type and scores as “very appropriate (4)”, “appropriate (3)”, “not suitable (2)” and “not at all suitable (1) “.

Study Group

56 Grade VII secondary school students studying in Luray II National High School (Day) during the school year 2012 – 2013 at first participated in the study. The sample formed through random sample selection. In this type of selection, the sample is selected at random from the official enrolled master list.

Treatment of Data

The data that were gathered by the researcher were properly tabulated, calculated and interpreted, using appropriate statistical treatment.

The researcher used the following statistical treatment to have an appropriate empirical basis and interpretation of data.

Simple Percentage Formula was utilized to compute the percentage of the profile of the respondents in terms of gender and age. The weighted mean formula was utilized to arrive at a definite data on the variables specified in the standardized instrument.  Likert format was used to determine the scale of achievement motivation. Weights were provided for each scale

To test the significance between achievement motivation and gender as well as parents educational attainment and family income status, Coefficient of Contingency (Using Chi-Square) was used.

The formulas were as follows:

Simple Percentage Formula

P = f / n x 100

Where:         P = Percentage

f = frequency

n = number of respondents

100 = constant variable in computing percentage

Weighted Mean Formula

Xw =

Where:          ∑ = summation

                        f = grade

                       w = weight/units

                      N = no. of respondents

Likert Format

Weights                                                       Scale

4                                                  Very appropriate

3                                                  appropriate

2                                                  not suitalbe

1                                                 Not at all suitable

The researcher utilized a hypothetical-mean range to interpret the results. The following are the hypothetical-mean range with its interpretation.

Range                 Scale                                                 Interpretation

3.26 – 4.00       Very appropriate         Very high achievement motivation (VHAM)

2.51 – 3.25       Appropriate                 High achievement motivation (HAM)

1.76 – 2.50       Not Suitable                 Low achievement motivation (LAM)

1.0 – 1.75       Not at all Suitable           Very Low achievement motivation (VLAM)

Data Analysis

 Table 1: The personal information of students participating the study

Frequency (f) Percentage (%)
Gender Male 24 42.86
Female 32 57.14
Total 56 100
Mother’s Educational Attainment Elementary Education 15 26.79
Secondary Education 33 58.93
Tertiary Education 8 10.71
Total 56 100
Father’s Educational Attainment Elementary Education 18 32.14
Secondary Education 32 57.14
Tertiary Education 6 10.71
Total 56 100
Family Income Status Self-employed 17 30.36
Worker 35 62.50
Unemployed 4 7.14
Total 56 100

 

This table shows the personal information of Grade VII students participated in the study. Majority of the respondents are female with 57.14% whereas the males have 42.86%. In regards to their parents education attainment, most of the participants have mother and father who finished secondary education with 58.93% and 57.14% respectively. 62.50% of the respondents have parents who are worker.

Table 2: The achievement motivation level of Grade VII students

 

The scale of the expressions weighted mean interpretation
1 I try stubbornly when ı failed my lessons. 2.63 HAM
2 I try to do the best whatever I do. 2.70 HAM
3 Being successful at easy tasks that anyone can do does not give me pleasure. 2.54 HAM
4 I would like to pass all my lessons. 3.16 HAM
5 I enjoy answering difficult questions in every exam. 2.45 LAM
6 I try to do my best when I have work. 2.84 HAM
7 To take low marks in all my lessons makes me sad. 2.95 HAM
8 I would like to get the highest mark in all my lessons. 3.07 HAM
9 Not to take high marks makes me sad. 1.95 LAM
10 I study hard to all my lessons. 2.88 HAM
11 I study all my lessons only test period. 2.18 LAM
12 I enjoy studying all my lessons. 2.86 HAM
13 I get bored when I start studying my lessons. 1.91 LAM
14 I want easy issues to be taught instead of difficult issues in all my lessons. 3.20 HAM
15 I like being successful at school. 3.07 HAM
16 I get disturbed when I cannot finish my homework. 2.46 LAM
17 I don’t try to learn more than taught. 2.73 HAM
18 I start studying after my lesson. 2.43 LAM
19 I feel better when I am successful at school. 2.73 HAM
20 I review my lessons even I don’t have exam. 2.77 HAM
21 I study more than homework even my teachers don’t want me to do. 2.77 HAM
22 I try to understand my lessons. 2.77 HAM
23 I try to flatter to my teachers. 2.48 LAM
AVERAGE 2.67 HAM

 

The table 2 presents the achievement motivation level of Grade VII students. It reveals that the respondents have high achievement motivation in the following variable: they try stubbornly when they failed their lesson (2.63); they try to do the best whatever they do (2.70); being successful at easy tasks that anyone can do does give them pleasure (2.54); they would like to pass all their lessons (3.16); they try to do their best when they have work (2.84); to take low marks in all their lessons makes them sad (2.95); they would like to get the highest mark in all their lessons (3.07); they study hard to all their lessons (2.88); they enjoy studying their lessons (2.86); they want difficult issues to be taught instead of easy lessons (3.20); they like being successful at school (3.07); they try to learn more than taught (2.73); they feel better when they are successful at school (2.73); they review their lessons even they don’t have exam (2.77); they study more than homework even their teacher’s don’t want them to do (2.77); they try to understand their lessons (2.77). The Grade VII students seemed motivated to study their lesson and they like challenging task/activity, they are curious and willing to learn for its own sake, and they want to try things on their own to be successful in school.

On the contrary, the participants have low achievement motivation in the following variables: they enjoy answering difficult questions in every exam (2.45); not to take high marks makes them sad (1.95); they study all their lessons only test period (2.18); they get bored when they start studying their lessons (1.91); they get disturbed when they cannot finish their homework (2.46); they start studying after their lessons (2.43); they try to flatter their teachers (2.48). The participants still on their transition period and have a difficult time coping their current situations in the secondary level.

Summary and Conclusions

 In this study, the respondents are from Grade VII students officially enrolled for this school year 2012-2013. There were 56 Grade VII students participated the conduct of this study in which majority are females with 57.14%. The highest educational attainment of most parents of the respondents is secondary graduate with 58.93% (mother) and 57.14% (father). 62.50% of these parents were workers.

In general, in this research the achievement motivation of students is considered ‘high’ level but an important part of them want to learn easy issues in their lessons, don’t want to learn more than they taught, want lessons pass empty and study their lessons only test period. Studies have shown that the students motivated to lesson at the beginning of the class, their interest lasts for long until the end of the lesson, and also shows that they learn better. At this point, the motivation of students certainly should not be ignored. Among the causes of negative attitudes of the students about their lessons, in a certain part of the students, it is more strong possibility that the reason is not cause from the lesson issue or its content; it is cause from the lack of support from parents and the lack of school facilities.

The following suggestions are made considering the results above:

1.) Using different strategies in motivating students in their academics, it should be useful for teachers to apply the motivation strategies in their lessons.

2.) Parents should encourage more their children and should ask feedback to teachers in regards to their students’ academic performance.

3.) Teachers and parents should work collaboratively in helping the students to be academically motivated.

References

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