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Psychological Foundation in Guidance


  • proponents: Wilhelm Wundt and Edward B. Titchener
  • focused on breaking down mental process into the most basic components
  • structure of consciousness
  • describe, analyze and explain conscious experience, particularly feelings and sensations
  • used a method of research called instrospection – looking into yourself and telling what is there
  • paved way to experimental psychology


  • proponents: William James
  • is a doctrine that makes something a thought, desire, pain (or any other type of mental state) depends not on its internal constitution, but solely on it function, or the role it plays, in the cognitive system of which it is a part
  • investigate the function, or purpose of consciousness rather than its structure
  • understand the mental process of “Adaptation”, the process that helped the humans (and animals also) adapt to their environment
  • concern with not only what the mind is made of but also how and why it works as it does
  • broadened the scope of psychological research and application
  • developed the technique of longitudinal research, which consists of interviewing, testing, and observing one person over a long period of time
  • influenced behaviorism and applied psychology


  • proponents: Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka & Wolfgang Kohler
  • unified whole, form, configuration
  • the whole is different/greater from the sum of its parts
  • looks at the human mind and behavior as a whole
  • proposes that learning consists of the grasping of a structural whole and not just a mechanistic response to a stimulus


  • Law of Proximity – suggests that when elements are grouped closely together, they are perceived as wholes/objects or shapes that are close to one another appear to form groups.
  • Law of Similarity – proposes that like parts tend to be grouped together in cognition
  • Law of Closure – suggests that perception tends to complete incomplete objects
  • Law of Symmetry/Pragnanz(good form) – we are innately driven to experience things in as good as gestalt as possible
  • Law of Figure Ground – suggests that the eye tends to see the objects, rather than the spaces or holes between them
  • Law of Good Continuation – learner’s tend to continue shapes beyond there ending points


  • General Psychology – lays the foundation for understanding human behavior
  • Developmental Psychology – study about the critical stages over the life span – what happens to individuals as they grow and change.
  • Educational Psychology – concerned with theories of the relationship between learning and human growth and development.
  • Social Psychology – deals with the impact of social situations on individuals and their behavior.
  • Ecological/Environmental Psychology – examines the interrelationship between human behavior and environments – social settings, built environments, learning environments and informational environments and everything natural on the planet.
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Lesson Guide Sample (for College)


To retell orally the concepts of state and government at the end of the discussion. By which, the students can tell the significance of its existence.

To recognize our rights and sovereignty being the functionaries and subjects to be governed as the inhabitants of state.

To point to the advancement of public welfare that government should exists and should continue to exists for the benefit of the people governed.


To be able to learn the whole concept of state and government and its importance.

To able to identify its powers and authority, its limits and control.


The concept of state and government is elementary in the study of Philippine Constitution. For one who intend to learn the fundamental law of the land, he should have first a clear knowledge and comprehension on the formal object, basic knowledge and understanding of the state and of the principles and ideals which underlie its organization and activities.

Thus, the same should be systematically taught first in the study of Philippine Government and Constitution.


The lesson content covers the following:

a)      What is the meaning of state?

b)      What are the elements of state?

c)      What are the origin of states?

d)      How is state distinguish from nation?

e)      What is the purpose and necessity of government?

f)       What are the forms of government?

g)      What is the classification of the Philippine Government?


 a)      Lectures and discussions.

b)      Classwork and home assignments.

c)      Reporting


  1. Conduct oral examination out of the lesson content 30 minutes before the meeting will be adjourn.
  2. Conduct written examination after the whole lesson content have been completely delivered through class discussions.


  1. Textbook on the Philippine Constitution 2011 by Hector S. De Leon and Hector M. De Leon Jr.
  2. Textbook on Introduction to Political Science by Garner.
  3. Textbook on Political Science and Government by Garner.