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From birth, through adolescence and adulthood, we all respond to music once we hear it. We use music to soothe, stimulate, connect with others and give ‘voice’ to our feelings. Sometimes we just try to concentrate listening them without saying any words. There are times even when we sing the lyrics as a sign of our emotional gusto.
Everyone can play instruments producing music regardless of disability, ethnicity or age. But what is good about music is that, it now become an effective intervention for people of all ages and abilities. This otherwise known as musical therapy.
Academically, music is a form of art. Music is also a form of entertainment that puts sounds together in a way that people like or find interesting. Most music includes people singing with their voices or playing musical instruments, such as the piano, guitar, or drums.
Based on research, a moderate noise level is the sweet spot for creativity. Even more than low noise levels, ambient noise apparently gets our creative juices flowing, and doesn’t put us off the way high levels of noise do.
The way this works is that moderate noise levels increase processing difficulty which promotes abstract processing, leading to higher creativity. In other words, when we struggle (just enough) to process things as we normally would, we resort to more creative approaches.
In high noise levels, however, our creative thinking is impaired because we’re overwhelmed and struggle to process information efficiently.
In the ordinary course of our existence in this world, music plays an important role in many ways of our living.
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Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound and silence. It is performed with a vast range of instruments and with vocal techniques ranging from singing to rapping.
The word music derives from Greek μουσική (mousike; “art of the Muses”). In its most general form, the activities describing music as an art form include the production of works of music (songs, tunes, symphonies, and so on), the criticism of music, the study of the history of music, and the aesthetic examination of music.
Historically, in 1000 CE Guido D’Arezzo made many improvements in music theory. He first improved and reworked standard notation to be more user-friendly by adding time signatures. Then he invented solfege. This is the vocal note scale: do, re, mi, fa, so, la ,ti, do. The rest follows are the stories of the evolution of music.
In furtherance, recent studies about the health benefits of music reveals that listening to one’s favourite music can instantly put you in a good mood. But scientists are now discovering that music can do more than just to lift ones’ spirits.
The beneficial effects of music have been known for thousands of years. Ancient philosophers from Plato to Confucius and the kings of Israel sang the praises of music and used it to help soothe stress.
Recent findings also disclosed, from the fresh research in Austria, they had found out that listening to music can help patients with chronic back pain. And a recent survey by Mind – the mental health charity – found that after counselling, patients found group therapy such as art and music therapy, the most useful.
A study reported by MNT, found that infants remained calmer for longer when they were played music rather than spoken to, even when speech involved baby talk.
Likewise, multiple studies link music study to academic achievement.
The practice of music therapy has now become a way to treat neurological conditions from Parkinson’s to Alzheimer’s to anxiety and depression.
Now, advances in neuroscience and brain imaging are revealing what’s actually happening in the brain as patients listen to music or play instruments and why the therapy works. “It’s been substantiated only in the last year or two that music therapy can help restore the loss of expressive language in patients with aphasia” following brain injury from stroke, says Oliver Sacks, the noted neurologist and professor at Columbia University, who explored the link between music and the brain in his recent book Musicophilia. Beyond improving movement and speech, he says, music can trigger the release of mood-altering brain chemicals and once-lost memories and emotions.
Another study conducted in 2013 found that listening to music help reduce pain and anxiety for children at the UK’s Great Ormond Street Hospital. According to some researchers, music may help alleviate stress by lowering the body’s cortisol levels – the hormone released in response to stress. Simple stress reduction techniques such as facial massage or muscle release exercises can often enhance the music’s magic.
Music can have important effects on the cooperative spirits of those exposed to music.
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A piano is a musical instrument played using a keyboard which is a row of keys, small levers, that the performer presses down or strikes with the fingers and thumbs of both hands. It was invented by Bartolomeo Cristofori of Padua, Italy in 1709.
The piano is widely employed in classical, jazz, traditional and popular music for solo and ensemble performances, accompaniment, and for composing and rehearsal.
Te word piano is a shortened form of pianoforte, the Italian term for the instrument, which in turn derives from gravicembalo col piano e forte[ and fortepiano.
A normal piano has 88 keys. Pianos use the keys to move hammers that hit strings inside, making a sound.
Pianos come in two basic types: grand pianos and upright pianos. The piano has been an extremely popular instrument in Western classical music since the late 18th century. A person who plays the piano is called a pianist.
Many people who want to learn to play the piano are put off by the idea of spending long, boring hours learning music notes. But if you want to learn to play the piano, the first thing you will need to do is put those negative thoughts behind and start with an open mind.
Hereunder are the basic seven steps suggested in learning to play the piano.
Step 1: Getting Familiar with Your Notes
Step 2: Getting Familiar with the Piano Keys
Step 3: Playing Do-Re-Mi
Step 4: Picking it Up a Bit
Step 5: Music Notes and Timing
Step 6: Connecting the Notes
Step 7: Review and Practice
Nowadays, modern electronic musical instruments such as digital pianos turn as an alternative to the traditional acoustic piano, both in the way it feels to play and in the sound produced. It is intended to provide an accurate simulation of an acoustic piano.
Some digital pianos are also designed to look like an acoustic piano, both the upright or grand piano body style. Digital pianos use either an electronic synthesized emulation of the piano sound or a sampled piano sound, which is then amplified through an internal loudspeaker. Digital pianos typically have weighted or semi-weighted keyboards, which attempt to recreate the feel of an acoustic piano.
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Jewelry or jewellery is derived from the word jewel, which was anglicized from the Old French “jouel”. In French and a few other European languages, it has the equivalent term of “joaillerie”. It consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, and bracelets. It may be attached to the body or the clothes, and the term is restricted to durable ornaments, excluding flowers for example.
Jewelry may be made from a wide range of materials. Gemstones and similar materials such as amber and coral, precious metals, beads, and shells have been widely used, and enamel has often been important. In most cultures, jewelry can be understood as a status of symbols. It has been made to adorn nearly every body part.
As to creation of jewelries, gemstones, coins, or other precious items are often used. They are typically set into precious metals.
Beads are frequently used in jewelries. These may be made of glass, gemstones, metal, wood, shells, clay and polymer clay. Beaded jewelries commonly encompasses necklaces, bracelets, earrings, belts and rings. Beads could either be large or small. The smallest type of beads used for such are known as seed beads. These are the beads used for the “woven” style of beaded jewellery.
Other commonly used materials include glass, such as fused-glass or enamel, wood -often carved or turned and shells. Other natural animal substances such as bone and ivory, natural clay, polymer clay, hemp and other twines likewise have been used as well to create jewelries that has more of a natural feel.
Modern fine jewelries usually includes gold, white gold, platinum, palladium, titanium, or silver. Most contemporary gold jewelries are made of an alloy of gold, the purity of which is stated in karats, indicated by a number followed by the letter K.
Jewelries and its distinctive designs are crafted through silversmiths, goldsmiths, and lapidaries methods which include forging, casting, soldering or welding, cutting, carving and cold-joining or the used of adhesives, staples and rivets to assemble parts.
Individuals have used jewelries for a number of different reasons. It could such be functional, generally to fix clothing or hair in place; to tell the time (in the case of watches); to serve as a marker of social status and personal status, as with a wedding ring; as a signifier of some form of affiliation, whether ethnic, religious or social; to provide talismanic protection (in the form of amulets); as an artistic display; or to mark for social status, accomplishment, personal statement and/or investment.
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A concept is an idea or generalization which is derived from a number of related particular examples. It also refers to the way knowledge and experiences are sorted out to form a specific class.
The ultimate goal in concept teaching is to let learners categorize ideas, experiences and objects.
Concept learning is essentially sorting out and putting things into a specific class. It is based on the assumption that concept formation begins at an early stage when children at 9 and 12 months of age start with object-sorting and object-preference behavior. Such initial activity leads to classifying and generalizing which serve as bases for concept learning.
There are three identified distinct modes of learning. They are learning by doing called enactive mode, learning by forming mental images called iconic mode, and learning through a series of abstract symbols called symbolic mode. As children grow older, theoretically they depend less and less on the first mode of learning and advance to the next two.
The presentation of the concept can be done in two ways such as Expository or Rule-to-Example Method and Interrogatory or the Example-to-Rule Method. The former ensues when the teacher defines the concept for the students and then provides them examples to reinforce their understanding. This is also referred to as deductive way of presenting a lesson- from general to particular examples. For example, Vertebrates are animals with backbone. The latter is done when the examples are given first and the students discover the concept themselves through the process of logical reasoning. This method is also termed as inductive method of presenting a lesson. For example, fish, birds and dogs, upon examination, were found out to possess backbone or vertebrate column, hence they belong a group called vertebrates.
There are two approaches in concept teaching. They are Direct Presentation Approach and Concept Attainment Approach. The first one uses the rule-to-example method or the deductive method. For example: Oxygen is needed by all living things. Trees are living things, hence need oxygen. The other one assist learners to arrive at a concept using the example-to-rule method or the inductive method. For example: Organisms can emit their own light. Fireflies produce light. Certain fishes are light producers. Said organisms exhibit bioluminescence.
For some, cabinetry or furniture is an investment, or perhaps even a future family heirloom. Hence, some households accrue to furniture drawers with special features such as easy to close slides, touch release, push-to-open, self-closing, two-way travel, pocket door slides, lifts, anti-tilt, and many others.
Drawers are found in the furnitures like chest of drawers (also called dressers or bureaus for clothes), tool chests (drawers used to store tools), filing cabinets, desks and nightstands.
There are wooden drawers designed by which the front face is complete and the end grain from the side pieces does not show. This type of drawer, the corners may be dovetailed for additional strength or of aesthetics, and a half-blind dovetail joint may be used for the front corners to hide the joint. If one would like to attach the bottom piece of the drawer, a groove may be cut in the four vertical pieces to insert the bottom of the drawer.
Drawers can be built in a variety of manners using a variety of materials. Wood and various wood composites, plastic, and sheet metal are common materials used for drawers and the furniture thereof.
Drawer slides often have a mechanism to keep the drawer from accidentally being pulled fully from its enclosure. While some drawers incorporate a locking mechanism to secure the drawer. This is commonly found in desk drawers and filing cabinet.
Soft close drawer slides are ideal for cabinetry, furniture and other woodworking projects. It is a perfect general purpose slide for most household applications where you want the luxury feel of soft, slow closing drawer slides. The rails are made from cold rolled steel, in zinc, and have precision steel ball bearings. A quick release lever allows the drawer to be removed without unscrewing it. This type of drawer is conveniently offered by fulterer soft close drawer slides.
Bass is more than just a guitar with two fewer strings. It has a different tone, scale length, feel and musical role, and in many cases it requires a different conceptual and technical approach.
However, there is so much more that can be done with the bass guitar.
The origin of bass guitar can be traced back in 1920’s. Lloyd Loar, designed the first electric double bass. The bass used an electro-static pickup, but amplification of bass frequencies was as yet undeveloped, so there was no practical way of hearing the instrument.
In the early 1930’s, Paul Tutmarc became the first known individual to refine the double bass to a more practical size. The first prototype was about the size of a cello, and featured a rudimentary pickup, but this was found to be too heavy, and the design was refined to be more like a guitar. This new bass was 42 inches long, solid body, made of black walnut and piano strings and, like the previous, featuring a pickup.
In the mid ’30s, several established musical instrument firms began marketing experimental electric basses that were prototype bass, much less bulky than a standard double bass. However, these were all still tall, unfretted, upright instruments held in the standard vertical position.
There was very little progression of the bass guitar until Leo Fender famously created the Precision bass in 1951. This was named the Precision bass as the frets on the instrument allowed the notes to be played with precision. This was, to many people, the first real electric bass, as it was the most mass-produced and recognisable bass guitar at that time, and still is. Its design is the most copied in bass guitar history. In 1957, the pickup was changed to be a split pickup, and the pickguard and headstock were redesigned.
In 1965 came the first fretless Bass Aubi from Ampeg and in 1968, there appeared an 8 string bass from Hagstroem. The first fretless 6 string, (later owned by Les Claypool) was built by Carl Thompson in 1978. Because of playing styles like Slap and Pop, the variable number of strings and the different combinations of woods, necks, etc. pickups had to become much more varied. EMG pickups became widely used on bass guitars.
Nowadays, bass has further increased in popularity due to bassists like Les Claypool (Primus) and Flea (Red Hot Chili Peppers), who have shown the importance of bass in modern music. Unfortunately, the double bass declined in popularity, as it is unable to compete with the compact size and versatility of the electric bass guitar. Now, when somebody talks about a bass, the mind instantly jumps to an image of an electric bass guitar, rather than its predecessor, the acoustic upright.
In playing bass guitar, more often than not, it requires that you exercise restraint and subtlety rather than showcase your technique and slick moves. In many situations, it’s best to work mostly with the root notes of the chords and lock in with the drummer’s kick and snare drums.
In a rhythm section, part of the bass guitar’s role is to function as a liaison between the drums and the rest of the band. In most cases you want to make the bass and drums sound like one entity, and a great way to do this is to craft bass lines that fit like a glove with the drummer’s kick and snare drums. Using octave root notes is often an excellent way to do this, the low octave corresponding to the kick drum and the high octave hitting with the snare, typically on beats two and four, which are also known as the backbeats.
It’s that time of the year again when teachers, students, and administrators return to school. Students eagerly await standardized tests, teachers look forward to discussing with parents why their child got a B instead of an A, and administrators debate how to spend their bountiful budgets on high-tech learning equipment. I really hope the sarcasm was caught there.
Today, more and more teachers are putting in extra hours to ensure that their students are learning. Many are also putting some of their own money towards school supplies because the school simply cannot afford them. With so much hard work and their own money put in, it makes you wonder if teachers are eligible for overtime pay.
Are Teachers Eligible?
Unfortunately, teachers are not eligible for overtime pay. Despite the experience a teacher has, the level at which they teach at, or how many hours they put in, teachers cannot earn overtime pay. Now this can obviously have mixed reactions. On one hand, if you put in an inordinate amount of working hours, you should be compensated for your time. However, many people will argue that teachers get summer breaks which helps to even out the hours. In the end your stance is somewhat irrelevant due to the Fair Labor Standards Act ruling on overtime eligibility.
Why Aren’t Teachers Eligible?
So why aren’t teachers eligible for overtime? The FLSA has strict rulings on what workers are eligible and not eligible to earn overtime pay. To start off, earning overtime requires an employee to work in excess of forty hours in one work week. This has nothing to do with the amount of hours worked in one day or if the hours worked were during nights or weekends. You simply have to exceed forty hours worked in the workweek. The hours worked in excess are paid out at one and a half times your normal pay rate. So if you have worked 45 hours this week and your normal pay rate is $10 per hour, you will earn $15 for five of those hours.
So in that sense, a teacher can still qualify for overtime. The law doesn’t state that you have to average over forty hours per week in the year or exceed 2,080 hours worked in the year. So the next qualifying factor is the overall salary earned.
One misconception is that only workers paid on an hourly basis are eligible for overtime. Likewise, another misconception is that if you work on an hourly basis you are guaranteed eligibility for overtime. Both of these statements are actually false. While the vast majority of overtime eligible employees work on an hourly basis, that does not determine eligibility versus exemption.
Even some salaried workers can be eligible for overtime. One requirement of a salaried worker being eligible for overtime is how much they earn. The current threshold for salaried workers is at $466 per week or $23,660 annually. It is a well known fact that this is not much, especially if it is going towards supporting a family. In fact, for a family of four, this income is below the poverty line. So as it currently stands, we would not provide overtime to an impoverished family despite how many hours they work as long as their salary is a dollar over that threshold.
This threshold has been intact for long time and hasn’t been raised to account for inflation in decades. Luckily, that is all changing according to recent statements by President Obama. The threshold will increase to $50,440 which is a healthy jump. This would cover about 40% of salaried works, greatly helping out those who are currently earning a salary that exempts them from overtime.
Unfortunately for teachers, this still won’t make them eligible for overtime. The main reason is that they are automatically exempt based on their job function. The FLSA’s ruling on overtime creates exemptions for a handful of professions and job duties. The jury is still out on a number of white collar exemptions which are classified as executive, administrative, and professional. However, the automatic exemptions for lawyers, doctors, judges, and teachers remain. They are considered “traditional learned professions” which makes them ineligible from overtime. This professional exempt work is categorized as work that prominently requires intellectual, specialized education and involves the exercise of discretion and judgement.
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